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Hormones/Bio rhythms

Hormone types and biological rhythms

Endocrine glands Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas contributes
Hypothalamus master gland, part of forebrain, controls pituitary gland, uses neural and chemical pathways (converts between neural and chemical signals)
Pituitary gland base of brain, 2 structural and functional portions or lobes: Adenohypophysis & Neurohypophysis
Adenohypophysis anterior lobe of pituitary, controlled via hormonal manipulation by hypothalamus, growth hormones, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, adenocorticotropic hormones, follicle stimulating hormones, lutanizing hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone
Neurohypophysis posterior lobe controlled by neural connection from hypothalamus, antidiuretic hormones (conserve body water), oxytocin (cause contraction uterus during birth, behavior, reduce anxiety)
Adrenal glands paired on top of kidneys, 2 parts: adrenal cortex & adrenal medulla (epinephrine, norepinephirine), release corticosteroid hormones in response to stress (fight/flight)
Thyroid gland neck below larynx, regulates metabolic rate, sensitive to other hormones, protein synthesis, etc
Parathyroid gland 4 small glands posterior surface of thyroid, regulate calcium levels in blood and bones
Pancreas exocrin/endocrine functions, Islets of Langerhans endocrine portion (1-2% in humans): alpha cells (produce glucagon, increase blood glucose via fat reserve), beta cells (produce insulin, decrease blood glucose via conversion to glycagen and lipid)
Biological rhythms patterns of activity occur at regular intervals, 3 main types: circadian, circannual, ultradian
Circadian pattern over 24 hours, 3 types: diurnal (daylight), nocturnal (night), crepuscular (sunrise/sunset), photoperiod primary cue
Circannual pattern over 1 year, seasonal change of coat color, hibernation, reproduction, regulated by photoperiod
Ultradian pattern less than 24 hours, some rodents 6-12 evenly spaced bouts of activity, maybe some photoperiod influence
Created by: jebeard