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Vertebrate Zoology

Osteichthyes

QuestionAnswer
Skeleton of Osteichthyes Fully ossified; Dermal plates in crnium; Teeth rooted in dermal bone
Soft Tissue of Osteichtyes Gas bladder; Operculum over gills
Actinopterygians Ray finned; Only radials; Heavy to light weight scales; Robust to flexible jaw for whole prey feeding;
Actinopterygians Fins Caudal fins are either heteroarcal or homocercal; Paired fins with pelvic fins moving anteriorly
Actinopterygians Locomotions Lateral ungulation in the form of anguilliform, carangiform and subcarangiform, astraciform; Dependent on frictional drag and inertial drag
Actinopterygians Reproduction Freshwater with high parental input in nests and large yolks; Marine with low parental input and small yolks for plankton feeding young; Aplacental viviparity
Actinopterygians Diversity: Polypterids Derived from basal node, so retain basal and radial elements
Actinopterygians Diversity: Acipenseriforms Sturgeon - Secondary loss of endochondral bone, reduced dermal bone, gas bladder for respiration, heterocercal tail; Paddlefish- Ram feeding, somewhat hetereocercal tail
Actinopterygians Diversity: Neopterygians Garpikes - no basals, lack complex mobile elements in jaw so no suction feeding; Bowfins - mobile maxilla for suction, pelvic fin shift
Actinopterygians Diversity: Teleost Premaxilla and maxilla mobile, pharyngeal jaws mobile, shift pelvic fins, very diverse
Sarcopterygians Extended endoskeletal elements in fins; Retains two dorsal fins; Devonian periods; Coelacanths, Lungfish, and Tetrapods
Sarcopterygian Diversity: Coelacanth Fossils back 400 million years ago to present day; Fatty filled swim bladder homologous to fish gas bladders; Fleshy paired fins not for support but for windmill locomotion like tetrapod locomotion; Advanced Neurological pathways
Sacopterygian Diversity: Lungfish Australian species is less derived with large heavy scales and aquatic fins; South American and African species have wispy fins for substrate locomotion and lungs for breathing, ephemeral environments, burrowing and estivating
Created by: LionsandGiants