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Bio Exam 2

what is competitive inhibition when something bind to the active site of an enzyme to prevent the catalytic substrate from doing so
what is allosteric activation? when something binds to the enzyme altering its shape making it easier for the substrate to bind to the active site
what is allosteric inhibition? when something binds to the enzyme altering its shape preventing the substrate from binding to the active site.
feedback inhibition a version of allosteric inhibition when the product of a regulatory molecule is over abundant and as a result acts as an allosteric inhibitor by binding to the enzyme of an earlier step.
regarding enzymes in order to ensure proper function it is vital... they fold properly
different properties that influence folding temperature, pH, (each enzyme has unique preferable environmental conditions)
Unique features of a prokaryotic cell cell wall, supercoiled circular DNA (Nucleoid), Plasmids
What are plasmids? DNA, floating around randomly within a cell, they are functinal and allow prokaryotes to exchange genetic information
Ribosomes: Macromolecular machinery in a cell responsible for making proteins
flagella whip like tail used for movement
fimbriea: hair like projections used to anchor cell
what is the difference in size between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells are much larger 10-100 üm vs 1 üm in prokaryotic cells. Volume exponentially larger in eukaryotic.
The Nucleus: double membrane, nuclear pores, houses genetic information
the nucleolus: houses ribosomal DNA
Rough ER protein synthesis, outgrowth of the nuclear envelope (ribosomes embedded inside of endoplasmic reticulum)
Smooth ER ER without ribosomes, new lipid synthesis site contains high levels of Ca2+ in certain smooth ER breakdown of hydrophobic toxins (Ex. Cells in liver)
Golgi apparatus Receives material from rough ER and packages it to be sent somewhere else
Peroxisomes main function is to break down hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner as
Lysososme The cells recycling center, turns proteins to amino acids, nucleic acidy to nucleotides etc... contains hydrolyses, only work in acidic environments
autophagy self eating, get rid of materials/organelles that are over abundant
phagocytosis 1. detection, 2. phagosome formation, 3. delivery to lysosome for digestion 4. small molecules recycled.
steps of receptor mediated endocytosis 1 macromolecules bind to receptors, 2. endocytic vesicle forms 3. endocytic vesicle fuses with early endosome; protons lower ph 4. early endosome matures; digestive enzymes received 5. mature lysosome macromolecules digested.
vacuoles large organelle where some hydrolysis reaction occurs big storage site for water.
Mitochondria atp production, outer and inner membrane, inner membrane extends across cells embed proteins that are broken down in ATP grow and divide within a cell they move around independently
chloroplasts site of photosynthesis, full of thylakoids,
Key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 1.Eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100μm; prokaryotic cells are typically 1μm or smaller 2.The DNA in eukaryotic cells is surrounded by membrane 3.Eukaryotic cytoskeleton is more complicated and elaborate than that of prokaryotes
Rough endoplasmic reticulum a) Continuous with the outer nuclear membrane b) Site of production for proteins that will be secreted, inserted into the membrane, or that function inside the Golgi apparatus or lysosomes
Smooth ER a) Lipid biosynthesis b) Breakdown of hydrophobic toxins
Peroxisomes sites of oxidation reactions (contain an enzyme called catalase to detoxify hydrogen peroxide)
How do the appropriate enzymes and other proteins necessary for those functions get to the correct organelle? a)organelle proteins have sequences of amino acids that identify them as “belonging” to an organelle b)cytoplasmic protein binds to “addresses” and bring the protein to c)receptors in the membrane of the target organelle that then open up to let enter
Actin filaments The smallest cytoskeletal elements , also known as microfilaments often interact with myosin interactions can cause cell movements such as cytokinesis and cytoplasmic streaming
intermediate filaments provide structural support for the cell.
microtubules is a motor protein that uses these as tracks
what do Shuttle proteins called exportins do? help molecules containing a nuclear export signal to exit the nucleus. This process is almost exactly the reverse of import.
what was Awarded to Randy Shekman, James Rothman, and Thomas Sudhoff for “their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells” 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
If ΔG is negative , the reaction is exergonic and spontaneous.
If ΔG is positive , the reaction is endergonic and not spontaneous.
If ΔG = 0, the reaction is at equilibrium
Energetic coupling allows nonspontaneous reactions to occur by pairing them with spontaneous reactions. Two basic types. A. Redox reactions transfer energy via electrons. B. ATP transfers energy via phosphate groups
ATP transfers energy via phosphate groups When ATP is hydrolyzed, the terminal phosphate is released in a highly exergonic reaction.
How do Enzymes Work? 1. Enzymes bring substrates together 2. Enzymes lower the activation energy.
Enzyme catalysis is a three-step process: 1.Initiation:enzyme orients substrates as interact with R-groups in active site 2.Transition-state facilitation: between substrate and active site maximized as transition state forms 3.Termination:products low affinity for the active site, released.
“energetic coupling” when enzymes couple an exergonic reaction to an endergonic reaction”
2 types of energetic coupling 1. Sometimes high energy electrons are transferred temporarily to carrier molecule, which picks up protons as well 2.Energy comes from transfer of a high energ phosphate group from ATP to one substrate to increase the potential energy of the substrates
feedback inhibition when the product of one step acts as an allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme that catalyzes a previous step)
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
cellular respiration making ATP in the presence of oxygen
Fermentation pathways allow cells to regenerate NAD+ for glycolysis
Glucose in cellular respiration (Glycolysis) 2 atp added which makes it less stable and allows it to be broken down into two pyruvate after split two more phosphates added and a proton and two electrons leave and attach to NAD+ creating 2NADH the 4 phosphates attached yield 4 ATP
Where does krebbs cycle occur? Mitochondiria
How is Acetly COA formed the two carbon half of each pyruvate is combined with Coenzyme A
oxidation in cellular respiration During aerobic respiration, oxygen is reduced, donating an electron to hydrogen to form water. The entire process of cellular respiration oxidizes glucose.
Calvin cycle The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
NADP an electron acceptor that, as NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
Photo system II One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
Photosystem I A light-capturing unit in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) A three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intermediate in glycolysis.
What are the three phases of The Calvin cycle? Carbon Fixation Energy Consumption and Redox Release of G3P; Regeneration of RuBP
C3 plants A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
Photorespiration metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output generally occurs on hot, dry, days when stomata close and the O2/CO2 ratio increases, favoring the binding of O2 rather than CO2 by rubisco.
C4 Plants A plant in which the Calvin cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.
PEP carboxylase An enzyme that adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in mesophyll cells of C4 plants. It acts prior to photosynthesis.
CAM plants an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. In this process, carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted to organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
aerobic respiration catabolic pathway in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
NAD+ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that cycles easily between oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH) states, thus acting as an electron carrier.
citric acid cycle in eukaryotes, pyruvate enters the mitochondrian and is oxidized to a compound called acetyl CoA and then eners the citric acid cycle
oxidative phosphorylation the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration
chemiosmosis an energy coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work; such as the synthesis of ATP. Under aerobic conditions, most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by this
stages of cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle (occurs in the mitochondrion) 3. Oxidative phosphorylation (occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion)
How would you describe the citric acid cycle? This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
How would you describe glycolysis? This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
How would you describe the electron transport chain? This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration
How much does a single glucose molecule produce in glycoloysis alone? a single glucose molecule in glycolysis produces a total of: 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, 2 molecules of ATP (NET), (Two used during) 2 molecules of NADH and 2 molecules of water
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is Oxygen
Three basic ECM components Fiberous proteins, water hydrated gels, adhesive glycoproteins
Collagen Provides tensile strength
Adhesive glycoproteins Connect ecm componets to each other and to cells Comprised of fibronectin, lamins and integrin
Fibronectin Major component of ecm matrix
Laminin Major component of basement membrane
Extracellular matrix a mixture of proteins and polysaccharides that are secreted locally and surround or lie beneath cells in tissues.
Created by: jpf11230