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CfE Higher 7-9

CfE Higher Vocab - Topic 7 (Sequencing), 8 (Pathway control) & 9 (Respiration)

Catabolic A reaction which releases energy and breaks down molecules.
Electron transport chain The final stage of respiration where high energy electrons and hydrogen ions are used to synthesise ATP.
ATP The energy-carrying molecule used in cells because it can release energy very quickly.
Feedback inhibition The first enzyme of a metabolic pathway is inhibited by the reversible binding of the final product of the pathway.
Fermentation A type of respiration which takes place in the absence of oxygen.
Pyruvate A molecule formed during glycolysis which, when oxygen is present, enters the matrix of the mitochondrion to start the citric acid cycle.
NAD A co-enzyme which easily attaches to hydrogen ions, but releases them when they are required.
Anabolic A reaction which requires energy and builds up molecules.
Non-competitive inhibition A molecule binds to part of the enzyme away from the active site, and causes a change in shape of the active site of the enzyme, thereby inhibiting the binding of the appropriate substrate molecule.
ADP A low energy molecule that forms ATP when a phosphate molecule is added.
Phosphorylation The addition of a phosphate group.
ATP synthase An enzyme which produces ATP.
Dehydrogenase An enzyme which removes hydrogen ions and electrons from substrates
Oxaloacetate Combines with acetyl coenzyme A to form citrate during the citric acid cycle.
Competitive inhibition Occurs when an inhibitor, resembling the structure of the substrate, binds to the active site of the enzyme and blocks the binding of the substrate
FAD An alternative to NAD. A co-enzyme which easily attaches to hydrogen ions, but releases them when they are required.
Metabolism The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Induced fit A slight change in shape (a squeeze) of the active site of the enzyme that allows the substrate to fit perfectly
Citrate Formed during the citric acid cycle when oxaloacetate combines with acetyl coenzyme.
Energy investment phase The first phase of glycolysis where 2 molecules of ATP are required.
Glycolysis The first stage of respiration where glucose is broken down into pyruvate.
Lactate Pyruvate is converted to this molecule during fermentation/anaerobic respiration.
Matrix of mitrochondrion The specific area of a mitochondrion where the citric acid cycle takes place.
Energy pay-off phase The last phase of glycolysis where 4 molecules of ATP are produced.
Anaerobic respiration Respiration that takes place without oxygen. Also known as fermentation.
Created by: amymurney