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ch 10 dna vocab


virulent disease-causing strain of a bacterium
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) bacterium that caused lung-disease
S strain smooth-edged colonies grown in Petri dishes
R strain rough-edged colonies grown in Petri dishes
transformation transfer of genetic material from one cell or organism to another
Oswald Avery American researcher who, in the early 1940s, tested if transforming agent was protein, RNA, or DNA
Frederick Griffith British medical officer who, in 1928, studied and experimented on bacterium called S. pneumoniae
bacteriophages viruses that infect bacteria
Escherischia coli (E. coli) bacteria that Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey experimented on
nucleotide repeating subunits of the strands of DNA
deoxyribose what the five-carbon sugar in DNA nucleotide is called
nitrogenous base a base that is made of nitrogen and carbon atoms, and also accepts hydrogen ions
hydrogen bonds the bonds formed between bases of a strand of DNA
purines bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms ex. adenine and guanine
pyrimidines bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms ex. cytosine and thymine
thymine, cytosine, adenine, guanine the four different kinds of ways the nitrogenous bases form
rings nitrogenous bases and their chemical structure
base-pairing rules the rules that state which bases form with other bases
strands the two long chains that are in a single nucleic-acid chain of DNA
complementary base pairs the bases that pair with their corresponding side i.e. A-T and C-G
base sequence the order of bases on a chain of DNA
helicase the enzymes that separate the DNA strands
replication fork Y-shaped region that results when the two strands separate
DNA polymerases enzymes that add complementary nucleotides
semi-conservative replication type of replication in DNA that states each new DNA molecule conserves one of the previous DNA strands, the other previous strand remaining there
ribonucleic acid polymeric molecule responsible for various roles in DNA such as decoding, coding, and expression of genes
mRNA RNA molecule that conveys genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome and uses that information to specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
tRNA a type of RNA that helps decode a mRNA sequence into a protein
rRNA the RNA component of the ribosome, which is essential for protein synthesis in all living things
RNA one of the three essential macro-molecules for all known forms of life in biology
Created by: rmorris16