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ch 10

biology ch. 10 nucleic acids and protein synthesis.

3 parts of a DNA nucleotide sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, and 1 of 4 nitrogen-containing bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine).
sugar (DNA) deoxyribose
sugar (RNA) ribose
nitrogen containing bases (4) adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T)
adenine and guanine purines made of two rings of carbon
cytosine and thymine pyrimidines made of one carbon ring
complementary base pairs C-G, T-A
replication the process of copying DNA in a cell.
helicases enzymes that separate 2 nucleotide chains.
DNA polymerase enzymes that bind to the separate chains of DNA
original sequence of DNA ATTCCG
the new nucleotide chain TAAGGC
mutation change in the nucleotide sequence
RNA responsible for the movement of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytosol
structure of RNA sugar, (ribose), phosphate, nitrogen containing base
RNA differs from DNA... the sugar is ribose, thymine is NOT present, but uracil is, and RNA is single stranded.
types of RNA messenger (mRNA), Transfer (tRNA), ribosomal (rRNA).
watson and Crick 1953- suggested model of double helix for structure of DNA. inspired by the x-ray photos of DNA crystals. 1962 nobel prize in medicine.
bases face toward the center and face the base of other chains with which they form hydrogen bonds.
messenger RNA consists of RNA nucleotides in the form of a single uncoiled chain. carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to cytosol (cytoplasm)
transfer RNA binds to specific amino acids. about 45 varieties. consists of about 80 RNA nucleotides folded into a hairpin shape that binds to specific amino acids.
Ribosomal RNA most abundant form. Consists of RNA nucleotides in globular form. joined by proteins, it makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made.
transcription process by which genetic information is copied fromDNA to RNA. makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made.
transcripts products of transcription. (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)
protein synthesis production of proteins.
proteins polymers made of one or more polypeptides.
genetic code a correlation between a nucleotide sequence and and an amino acid sequence.
codon 3 mRNA nucleotides, signal for translation of an mRNA to start or stop
start codon AUG
stop codon UAA, UAG, UGA
amino acids (20) sequence of amino acids determines how the polypeptides will twist and fold into the three dimensional structure of the protein.
peptide bonds link together a specific sequence of amino acids.
Created by: alexgibson14