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Biology Chap. 10


nucleotide 3 parts: 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
deoxyribose 5-carbon sugar in the DNA nucleotide
nitrogenous base contains nitrogen and carbons atoms; accepts hydrogen ions
purine nitrogenous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (adenine and guanine)
pyrimidines nitrogenous bases that have a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (cytosine and thymine)
base-pairing rules states that cytosine pairs with guanine (C-G) and adenine pairs with thymine (A-T) in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil (A-U) in RNA
complementary base pair one double-ringed purine with one single--ringed pyrimidine. C-G, A-T, or A-U
base sequence the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA
DNA replication the process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides
helicase enzymes that move along the DNA molecule, breaking the hydrogen bonds between the complementary nitrogenous bases
replication fork the Y-shaped region that results when the two strands of the DNA's double helix separate
DNA polymerase enzymes that add complementary nucleotides, found floating freely inside the nucleus to each of the original strands
semi-conservative replication in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new
mutation mistakes in DNA replication; a change in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule
ribonucleic acid (RNA) a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and plays a role in protein synthesis
transcription DNA acts as the template for the synthesis of RNA
translation RNA directs the assembly of proteins
protein synthesis forming proteins based on information in DNA and carried out by RNA
ribose a sugar found in RNA
messenger RNA (mRNA) a single-stranded RNA molecule that carries the instructions from a gene to make a protein
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) part of the structure of ribosomes
transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein
RNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of RNA on a DNA template
promoter a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA where RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription
termination signal a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
genetic code the term for the rules that relate how a sequence of nitrogenous bases in nucleotides corresponds to a particular amino acid
codon three-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal
anticodon three nucleotides on the RNA that are complementary to the sequence of a codon
genome the complete genetic content
bioinformatics uses computers to compare different DNA sequences
Created by: emmykat113