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Chapter 10 Bio

Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis

DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Double Helix shape of DNA
Purines Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines Cytosine and Thymine
replication process of copying DNA
Helicases enzymes that separate base pairs
DNA Polymerase enzymes that bind to the separated chains of DNA
Complimentary Base Pairs C-G, A-T
1 in 1000000000 (1 billion) amount of error in paired nucleotides after proofreading
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
DNA nucleotide sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate (phosphorus), and 1 nitrogen base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine)
RNA nucleotide sugar(ribose), phosphate, nitrogen containing base
messenger RNA (mRNA) carries genetic info from DNA to cytoplasm; single uncoiled chain
transfer RNA (tRNA) binds to specific amino acids; 45 varieties; single chain of approx. 80 RNA nucleotides; hairpin shape
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) most abundant; globular form; makes up the ribosome where proteins are made
transcription process by which genetic info is copied from DNA to RNA
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA products of transcription (transcripts)
protein synthesis production of proteins; amount/type of protein determine structure & function of the cell
proteins polymers; made of 1+ polypeptides; may contain 1000s of amino acids
amino acids 20; determines how the polypeptides will twist and fold into the 3D protein structure
genetic code correlation between a nucleotide sequence and an amino acid sequence; used by most organisms to translate mRNA transcripts into proteins
codon 3 mRNA nucleotides; codes for specific amino acids; some do not code at all( signal for translation of an mRNA to start/stop
AUG start codon
UAA,UAG, UGA stop codon
translation process of assembling polypeptides from info encoded in mRNA; begins when mRNA leaves the nucleus through pores in the nuclear membrane
anticodon the loop opposite of the site of the amino acid attachment bears a sequence of 3 nucleotides; complementary; pairs with the mRNA codon
ribosomes composed of rRNA and proteins and are free in the cytoplasm and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
binding sites one holds and mRNA transcript so that its codons are accessible to rRNA molecules; the other two hold tRNAs whose anticodons pair with mRNA codons
DNA vs. RNA in RNA sugar is ribose, thymine is NOT present, but uracil is, and it is single stranded
adenine and guanine made of two rings of carbon; purines
cytosine and thymine made of one ring of carbon; pyrimidines
Created by: caitlin_b123