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The Breathing System

Lungs, Breathing and Asthma

What is the difference between external respiration and cellular respiration? External respiration is the inhalation of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide by the lungs where cellular respiration is the release of energy from glucose in cells.
What is the function of the rings of cartilage in the trachea? The rings of cartilage keep the trachea open to allow air to enter and leave the lungs.
What happens during gaseous exchange in the lungs? Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the capillaries while carbon dioxide diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli where it is exhaled.
Why does each alveoli have a thin lining of water inside it? This allows rapid diffusion of gases into and out of the alveoli.
How are the lungs protected? 1: The rib cage offers physical protection. 2: Hair in the nostril traps dirt and dust. 3: Mucus lines the air way to trap dirt and dust. 4: Cilia in the trachea bring this mucus up the trachea to the pharynx where it is swallowed.
What part of our brain monitors our breathing? What gas is monitored? The medulla oblongata controls our breathing rate. It does this by monitoring the amount of carbon dioxide in our blood. An increase in the amount of carbon dioxide causes an increase in breathing rate.
Describe the process of inhalation The intercostal muscles moves the rib cage up and out, the diaphragm contracts and moves down. This increases the volume of the thoracic cavity and air is sucked into the lungs.Inhalation is an active process.
Describe the process of exhalation The intercostal muscles relax moving the rib cage down and in. The diaphragm relaxes pushing up into the chest. This decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity and squeezes the lungs, forcing air out of the lungs. Exhalation is a passive process.
What is the largest component of exhaled air? Nitrogen is the largest component of exhaled air. It makes up 78%. Oxygen makes up 16% Carbon dioxide makes up 4%
What is asthma? Asthma is a condition which results in the narrowing of the broncioles which reduces the amount of air that can be inhaled.
What triggers an asthma attack? Asthma attacks can be triggered by allergens like dust, dust mites and pet hairs.
How can an asthma attack be prevented? Removing wooden floors and replacing them with carpet. Vacuuming regularly. Changing bedclothes often and washing them in hot washes to kill dust mites.
What treatment can be used for an asthma attack? Inhalers can be used to treat an asthma attack. These contain steroids like ventolin or solbutamol which are bronchodilaters. These widen the bronchus and allow normal air levels into the lungs.
Created by: cbsbiology