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BIOL 1407 CH.23

Review for Test

Natural selection works on individual organisms (differential reproductive success)... ...but it is the population that evolves.
Population: Any group of individuals, usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same time. Smallest Unit that evolves.
Species: A kind of organism, interbreeding and genetically distinct. Given a binomial name (genus and species). Discrete (separate, unique) unit in nature.
Gene Pool: Total aggregate of genes (all the alleles) of all individuals in a population at one time
Hardy Weinberg Theorem: Describes a non-evolving populations….. 5 conditions for a population to be non-evolving: very large population size, no migration, no net mutations, random mating, no natural selection
To calculate alleles (p+q=1)... Where p= frequency of allele A (dominant allele). Where q= frequency of allele a (recessive allele).
To calculate frequency of genotypes... ...p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
Microevolution: Small scale evolutionary change, know the 5 causes; genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, nonrandom mating, natural selection.
Genetic Drift: Changes in gene pool of a small population. Shifts randomly and by chance.
2 Kinds of Genetic Drift: 1. Bottleneck Effect- Catastrophes 2. Founder Effect- A few individuals colonize new habitat.
Genetic Variation: (The raw material for natural selection): 2 causes: mutations (occur randomly) and sexual recombination.
Gene Flow: Exchange of genes between populations.
Mutation: A change in DNA base sequences; causes all heritable "variations." The raw material for natural selection.
Natural Selection (of Micro-evolution): Can cause evolution via differential reproductive success. Relative fitness: leaves more viable offspring than others.
Nonrandom Mating: Cause evolution by shifting the frequencies of genotypes in a gene pool.
2 Kinds of Nonrandom Mating: Inbreeding- Individuals of a population tend to mate with close neighbors. Assortative Mating: Individuals mate with partners that look like each other.
Created by: gummybears21