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6wks 3rd 9wk review

meiosis, gene mutation, chromosomal mutation, genetics

TermDefinition
Meiosis Specialized type of cell division in which four haploid (n) gametes, daughter cells, are formed from one diploid (2n) cell. This Increase genetic diversity.
Gametes Specialized sex cells that are also know as haploid cells; (n) that contain half the total chromosome number.
Fertilization The fusion of two sex cells and develops a zygote (diploid 2n)
Gene Deletion A type of frame shift that occurs when one or more bases are removed from a DNA sequence for a gene.
Insertion A type of frame shift that occurs when one or more new bases are added within a DNA sequence for a gene.
Substitution Also called point mutation, this occurs when a base is replace with a different base.
Duplication A large piece of the chromosome is repeated.
Inversion A piece of chromosome is removed and readded after being flipped, reversing its orientation.
Chromosomal deletion A piece of the chromosome is lost.
Chromosome Mutation A mutation that affects multiple genes
Nondisjunction During meiosis when chromosomes pairs don't separate correctly and both chromosomes go to the same daughter cell.
Sexual Reproduction The union of two gamete cells (1 sperm cell and 1 egg cell) that forms an offspring.
Meiosis I Prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I
Meiosis II Prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II
Crossing over A random exchange of chromosome segments. By mixing up the genes on the chromosomes, genetic variation increases.
Karyotype Looking at a photograph of an individual's chromosomes and arranging them into pairs.
Chromosome 23 Determines gender. Chromosome x and chromosome x = Female Chromosome x and chromosome y = Male
Chromosomal Disorder A missing or extra chromosome that can cause genetic disorders, such as an extra chromosome 21 is known as Down syndrome.
Alleles Different forms of genes for a single trait.
Dominant Gene that is always expressed
Heterozygous Genotypes made of two different alleles, such as Dd
Homozygous Genotypes made of the same alleles, such as AA or bb
Recessive Gene that is expressed only in a homozygous state, such as ee
phenotype A physical trait that can seen.
Genome the entire heredity of an organism.
Created by: melissa1334