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Ch8 Science Vocab


bacteriophage type of virus that stakes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses
nucleotides the small units, or monomers, that make up DNA
double helix where two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
base pairing rules Thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A), ca cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G)
replication the process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA polymerase a group of enzymes that bond the new nucleotides together
central dogma states that information flows in one direction, from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA a chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base
transcription the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA
RNA polymerases enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule
Messenger RNA (mRNA) an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms part of ribosomes, a cell''s protein factories
Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein
translation the process that converts, or translates, an mRNA message into a polypeptide
codon a three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid
stop codon signals the end of the amino acid chain
start codon signals the start of translation and the amino acid methionine
anticodon a set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon
promoter a DNA segment that allows a gene to be transcribed
operon a region of DNA that includes a promoter, an operator, and one or more structural genes that code for all the proteins needed to do a specific task
exon nucleotide segments that code for parts of the protein
introns nucleotide segments that intervene, or occur, between atoms
mutation a change in an organism's DNA
point mutation a mutation in which one nucleo tide is substituted for another
frameshift mutation involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
mutagen agents in the environment that can change DNA