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Medical Emergencies

Chapter 2 and 4

Contagious a disease that may be transmitted to another person by direct or indirect contact.
Induration hardness of a tissue, such as a positive skin test for tuberculosis
Infectious capable of causing an infection
Mantoux TB Skin Test a skin test that screens for tuberculosis infection
Tuberculosis (TB) an infectious, inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the pulmonary system
Aggregation process of clumping together, as is platelets forming a clot
Agranulocytosis an acute disease characterized by a dramatic disease in the production of granulocytes, leaving the body defenseless against bacterial invasion; often caused by drugs or chemicals that affect the bone marrow and depress the formation of granulocytes.
Blood Dyscrasia an alteration in blood cells levels, can include white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets
Luekopenia reduction in the number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the blood with the count being 5,000 or less
Neutropenia a diminished number of neutrophils in the blood
Postural Hypotension reduction in blood pressure that results from drug-induced vasodilation
Thrombocytopenia a decrease in the number of platelets in circulation blood
What is another name for Tuberculosis? consumption
What is the cause of Tuberculosis? infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
How is Tuberculosis transmitted? through inhalation of bacteria
What does Tuberculosis infect? (7 options) lungs, lymph nodes, meninges, kidneys, bone, skin, and oral cavity
What are some objectives and factors of someone with latent TB infection? no symptoms, does not feel sick, cannot spread TB to others, has a skin or blood test resulting in TB infection, have a normal chest x-ray and negative sputum smear, needs treatment for latent TB infection to prevent active TB
What are some objective and factors of someone with active TB? has symptoms, usually feels sick, may spread TB bacteria to others, has a skin or blood test indicating TB infection, may have abnormal chest x-ray or positive sputum smear or culture, needs treatment to treat active TB disease
What are some symptoms of active TB? persistent cough (for more than three weeks), night sweats, fever, weakness or fatigue, weight loss, pain in chest, positive skin test reaction (Mantoux)
What are the 3 questions in the health history information that leads to assumptions of TB? have you been around anyone with active TB? do you have a persistent cough greater than a three week duration? do you have a cough that produces blood
What are the three criteria to be met before treatment of active TB patients can be seen? not be in the coughing stage, have three consecutive negative sputum smears taken on the separate days, have taken effective anti-TB drugs for at least three weeks, bonus: physician should verify successful tx by ordering a culture after the three weeks
What is a Mantoux TB skin test? a PPD-purified protein derivative test
What are the positive signs of the Mantoux TB test? changes within 84-72 hours, induration, redness, size of 15mm
What does the medication Isoniazid do for TB? fights bacteria, used to treat and prevent TB, may become ruesistant to treatment, should and can be used with other medications
What does the medication Rifampin do for TB? antibiotic that fights and prevents bacteria from spreading in the body, used to treat or is a prevention of TB,
What does the medication Pyrazinamide do for TB? antibiotic but actual way it works is unknown
Created by: daisenmurray