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OCHS Bio - Unit 2

Unit 2 - Biochemistry

Vocab WordAnswer (from textbook)Anchor/Helper Phrase
atom the basic unit of matter made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
compound substance formed by the chemical combinations of two or more elements in definite proportions combined atoms
covalent bond type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared the strongest chemical bond
peptide bond type of covalent bond that holds the amino acids of proteins together bond found in proteins (P = peptide, protein)
ionic bond chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another weak bond in which electrons are "stolen"; holds salt together
water the most common compound in living things; the universal solvent main jobs: dissolving and transporting
polarity an uneven distribution of charges on a molecule water is both + and -
hydrogen bond weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom the bond that holds multiple water molecules together; creates surface tension
cohesion attraction between molecules of the same substance when water is attracted to itself
adhesion force of attraction between different kinds of molecules water is attracted to other things with charges
solute substance that is dissolved in a solution in salt water, this term describes the salt
solvent dissolving substance in a solution in salt water, this term describes the water
pH scale scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the strength of an acid or base; pure water has a pH of 7 (neutral) Goes from 0 (strong acids) to 14 (strong bases)
acid solution with a pH of 0-7 A before B, acids (0-7) before bases (7-14)
base solution with a pH of 7-14 A before B, acids (0-7) before bases (7-14)
monomer small chemical unit that makes up a polymer/macromolecule the building blocks of bigger molecules; mono = "one"
polymer molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules big molecules needed for life; poly = "many"
carbohyrate compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for living things monomer/building block = monosaccharides ("one sugar")
lipid macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; makes up most of the cell membrane; includes fats, oils, and waxes monomer/building block = fatty acids
protein macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms; needed by the body for growth and repair monomer/building block = amino acids
nucleic acid macromolecule that contains hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. carbon, and phosphorus; stores genetic information monomer/building block = nucleotides; the "NA" in DNA and RNA
homeostasis relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain "same status"; how an organism keeps itself in balance
Created by: nickbudz