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Periodontology

Chapter 2

TermDefinition
What is the purpose of gingiva? protects against mechanical wear and tear. It surrounds the the tooth and covers the bone.
What is gingiva divided into? free gingiva, attached gingiva, and interdental papillae
Free Gingiva or Free Marginal Gingiva the unattached coronal portion of the gingiva that encircles the tooth to form the gingival sulcus
Sulcus/Crevice space between free gingiva and the tooth surface
Free Gingival Groove the shallow line or depression on the surface of the gingiva at the junction of the free and attached gingivae
Attached Gingiva firm, dense, stippled tissue that extends from the free gingival groove to the mucogingival junction. firmly attached to the bone by collagen fiber.
Stippling gingiva having an orange-peeled apperance, results from the bundles of collagen fibers that enter the connective tissue papillae.
Lining Mucosa dissipates pull from cheeks and lips to allow movement during smiling, talking, and chewing
Specialized Mucosa the tongue with its papillae
Healthy Gingiva Color light coral pink
Size of gingiva should not be enlarged if it is healthy
Contour, shape, and form marginal gingiva should follow scalloped line around the crowns, lie flat to the tooth as if knife edged, and papillae should be pyamidal and fill the inderdental spaces
Consistency should be firm and resilient if healthy but not soft or spongy
Texture should appear matte like not shiny when dried, free gingiva should be smooth and attach gingiva should be stippled
Position margin should be above the CEJ and free gingiva should extend coronaly and the papillae should fill the embrasures
Gingival Epithelium joined to the underlying connective tissue by basal lamina
Oral Epithelium is composed of the attached gingiva, the pappilae, and the outer surface of the free gingiva. it covers the crest of the gingiva, free gingiva, and attached gingiva. it is parakeratinized
Sulcular/ Crevicular Epithelium extends from outer epithelium into the gingival sulcus it is nonkeratinized and parakertinized
Junctional Epithelium separates the periodontal ligament from the oral environment. it is nonkeratinized. adheres to the tooth structure and it protects the attachment of the tooth to the surrounding tissues
Alveolar Mucosa loosley attached movable tissue; begins at the MGJ and continues lining the mucosa of the oral cavity. thinner and darker because the blood vessels are visible not keratinized
Connective Tissue composed primarily of fiber bundles which function is to protect and support the junctional epithelium and the periodontal ligament
Dentogingival Unit the attachment of the junctional epithelium to the root surface by fibers from the connective tissue which supports the free marginal groove
Periodontal Ligament connective tissue complex primarily filled with fiber bundles and cells
Connective Tissue Attachment fiber bundles made of collagen that attach tooth to the bone
Cementum a calcified structure formed by cementoblasts which covers the root surfaces; it is thinner at the CEJ than at the apex
What is the function of the cementum? it anchors the teeth and maintains occlusal relationships and provides a seal for the dentinal tubules
Aleolar Process support system for the teeth
Cementoblast the cells around the root of the tooth
Cementocyt a cell found in cellular cementum which is derived from cementoblast trapped within newly formed cementum
Cementogenesis the formation of cementum
Cementoid the most recent uncalcified layer covering the surface of cementum
Cellular contains cementocytes
Acellular does not contain cementocytes, it cannot regenerate itself
Alveolar Process is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on the bones that hold the teeth
Dental Alveoli tooth sockets
Alveolar Crest the most cervical rim of the alveolar bone. apical to the CEJ by 1.5-2mm
Interdental Septum The bony separation between adjacent teeth in a dental arch
Festooning reproducing natural gum patters around the teeth
Dehiscence a resorbed area of a bone over the facial surface of the root
Fenestration an opening or window in the bone covering the facial surface of a root or a boneless window between two adjacent roots that almost touch
Exostosis the formation of new bone on existing bone because of excess calcium formation
Torus/ Tori a bony protrusion
Supporting bone consists of both cortical bone and trabecular bone
Compact bone/ Cortical bone less dense, softer, weaker, highly vascular
Trabeculae criss-cross struts that give bone strength. Has a honey-comb appearance. Makes up spongy bone. marrow is often found in its spaces
Osteoblast cells with single nuclei that synthesize bone during initial bone formation
Osteocyte a cell that lies within the substance of fully formed bone
Hydroxyapatite the mineral content of alveolar bone
Periosteum a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps around the bone
Endosteum a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the surface of the bony tissue
Radiopaque lighter
Radiolucent darker
Lamina Dura a space of compact bone adjacent to the PDL the part that is attached to the cementum of the roots by the PDL
Keratinization process that occurs: keratinocyte migrates from the basal layer to the surface. cells become flattened and develop keratohyaline granules in the subsurface and produce a superficial layers similar to skin which no nuclei is present
Keratinized Epithelium has gone under keratinization: keratinocyte migrates from the basal layer to the surface. cells get flattened and develop keratohyaline granules on the subsurface and produce skin where no nuclei is present
What is considered to be masticatory mucosa? gingiva
What does gingiva protect? protects from mechanical wear and tear
What is gingiva divided into? free gingiva, attached gingiva, interdental papillae
What is free gingiva? not attached to the tooth or underlying bone, not stippled, inner surface forms one wall of the sulcus, scalloped margin, more so in the anterior than posterior
What is sulcus/crevice? space between free gingiva and the tooth surface
What is the free gingival groove? apical to the margin and corresponds approx to the CEJ also where the junctional epithelium attaches gingiva to the tooth; demarcation between attached and unattached gingiva
What is attached gingiva? firmly attached to underlying tooth (cementum) and or aveolar bone (periosteum) goes from the free gingiva groove to the MGJ it is not movable, color varies pigmentation, vascularity, thickness of epithelium, fibrotic nature of connective tissue
What is stippling? may or may not be present in different people in different parts of the mouth in health and disease
What is the Interdental Papilla? fills embrasure, pyramidal; shape determined by alignment and tooth contacts, CEJ, different anterior and posterior, B & L papillae, forms the col directly beneath contact, if contact is open there is no col
What is the lining mucosa? apical to attached gingiva that dissipates pull from cheels and lips that allows movement during smiling, talking, chewing, and color distinction between attached mucosa
What is specialized mucosa? the tongue with its papillae
What does the PDL space do? forms a suspensory cushion between the surface of the tooth and bone
What is the CT attachment? fiber bundles made of collagen attached to the tooth to the bone
What is the function of the PDL? cells generate a peri-cementum for the cemental surface of the root and periosteum for the bone
What are the specific functions of the PDL? tooth anchorage, fibrous tissue development and maintenance, calcified tissue development and maintenance, sensory functions that include touch, pressure, and pain
What are the structures of the PDL? a connective tissue complex which is primarily filled with fiber bundles and cells
What is the function of Cementum? anchors the teeth and maintains occlusal relationships and provides a seal for the dentinal tubules
What is the composition of cementum? contains extrinsic fibers called sharpey's fibers, 50% is made up of hydroxypatite
What parts make up the aleolar process? sockets( alveoli), crest, compact and cancellous bone
What is the 3 components composition of aleolar process? alveolar bone, compact bone, trabecular and cancellous bone
What do circular fibers do? encircles the tooth
What do transseptal fibers do? extends between two adjacent teeth
What is the enamel/ cementum relationship? 60-65% of teeth cementum overlaps the enamel at the CEJ. In about 30% of teeth the cementum and enamel abut each other. In 5-10% of teeth there is a space between the two exposing the underlying dentin
What are epithelial rests of Malassez? part of the PDL , discrete clusters of residual cells from hertwigs epithelial root sheath that didn't completely disappear
What is the alveolar crest? the most cervical rim of the alveolar bone. it is apical to the CEJ by 1.5-2mm
what is Trabeculation? the formation of trabeculae
Created by: daisenmurray