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10 1-2 MitosisMeios

Yr 10 Ch 1-2 Mitosis

Replication the process of copying DNA
Chromosome is made of a single DNA piece, which has been supercoiled and organized around various proteins. It's the dense form of DNA and seen just prior to cell replication.
Chromatid is half of a replicated chromosome. When the chromosome replicates, it results in the well known X shape. The X contains two copies of the same DNA. Two sister chromatids are attached at the centromere to make up a replicated chromosome.
Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are exact replicas of the original cell - cloning (23 pairs of chromosomes in each new cell). This is done for growth and repair. Diploid or two. Makes It Two M-i-t (makes twins)
Meiosis produces gametes (egg and sperm cells) each has only 23 single chromosomes. Haploid or Half. When a sperm and egg combine the result is a new cell with 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Interphase replication of the DNA to become double stranded
Prophase double stranded chromosomes become visible (condense)
Metaphase chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell
Anaphase the chromosomes split and move to opposite ends of the cell
Telephase the two new nuclei form - each with the diploid number of chromosomes eg in humans 23 pairs
Cytokinesis membrane forms that splits the two nuclei and the cell pinches into two new fully functional daughter cells - clones of the original.
Autosomes 22 pairs of human homologous chromosomes (are not sex determining) - homologous means ideally they are exact replicas.
Sex chromosomes Pair 23 has either 2 X's in the case of females and an X and a Y for a male
Diploid 23 pairs of chromosomes
Haploid 23 single chromosomes
Asexual reproduction cloning - no mixing of genetic material as there is only one parent. Produces off spring that are ideally suited to the current environmental conditions.
Sexual reproduction genetic material is supplied by both parents and the offspring take on some characteristics of both parents - more variable and responsive to changes in the environment.
Created by: camwust