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BIOL 241 Cytology


Cells begin as undifferentiated stem cells
Cell structure that defines the boundaries of the cell: Plasma membrane
Cellular structure responsible for selective permeability Plasma membrane
Approximately half of the plasma membrane is made up of Proteins
Of the lipid content of the cell membrane, approximately what percent is phospholipids? 75%
Roughly 20% of the lipid component of plasma membranes is Cholesterol
What percentage of lipid component of plasma membranes is made up of glycolipids? 5%
Which best describes the structure of phospholipids? Phosphate "head" is hydrophilic, hydrocarbon "tails" are hydrophobic
Which part of the phospolipid can hydrogen bond with water? Phosphate "head"
In the formation of lipid bilayers, how do the hydrocarbon tails orient themselves? Inside bilayer, away from water
Which best describes the lipid bilayer? Fluid, moving, flexible
Have hydrocarbon "tails," that embed within bilayer, and oligosaccharide "bushes" extending into extracellular face of cell: Glycolipids
Form antigens, responsible for cell-to-cell communication: Glycoproteins and glycolipids
Functions to stablize the plasma membrane: Cholesterol, Anchor proteins
Span the lipid bilayer: Integral proteins
Have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions that correspond to analogous regions of lipid bilayer, allowing them to span lipid bilayer: Integral proteins
Responsible for cell-to-cell recognition: Glycolipids & Glycoproteins
Provide passage for ion to diffuse through hydrophobic part of lipid bilayer: Channel proteins
Provide binding sites for ligands: Receptor proteins
Either integral or peripheral; catalyze reactions of substrates into products: Enzymes
Connect cells together Junction proteins, Oligosaccharides of glycocalyx, Anchor proteins
The fusion of integral proteins between membranes resulting in a connection that generally does not allow materials to pass between cells: Tight junctions
Protein plaques, anchored deep within cytoplasm, with extentions outside of cell that joint with the same kinds of extension from other cells; do allow materials to pass between cells: Desmosomes
Provide channels between cells so that the cytoplasm of one cell can intermingle with cytoplasm of the next cell; do not allow materials to pass between cells Gap junctions
A characteristic of passive transport: Energy needed for particle movement across membrane, provided by kinetic energy
A system where there is a high concentration of a particular particle in one area and a lower concentration of the same particle in another area: Concentration gradient
The phenomenon whereby particles move randomly frrom high concentration to low concentration: Diffusion
The energy that drives diffusion: Kinetic energy
The rate of passive transport increases with: Increased temperature, Increased kinetic energy, Decreased particle size
The passage of materials from high to low concentration directly through the lipid bilayer, without help from an integral protein: Simple diffusion
Directly requires ATP: Primary active transport
Which cannot cross through the lipid bilayer: Amino acids
Which can cross through the lipid bilayer: Vitamin D
Osmosis is? the diffusion of water across a membrane
Water concentration is cell same as in solution: Isotonic solution
Water concentration in cell less than in the solution: Hypotonic solution
Possible result: Cell lysis. Cell in hypotonic solution
Possible result: Cell crenation Cell in hypertonic solution
Water flows out of the cell in this environment: Hypertonic solution
Water flows into cell in this environment Hypotonic solution
Organ that works to keep blood osmolarity isotonic: Kidney
Cannot pass through lipid bilater: Sodium, Calcium, Bicarbonate
Passage through a membrane of a particle from high to low concentration, using integral proteins: Facilitated diffusion
Allow passage of ions through a protein across membrane from high to low concentration: Channel protein
In facilitated diffusion, what powers the shape change of a transport protein Kinetic energy
Which molecule move across plasma membranes using facilitated diffusion involving transport proteins? Amino acids, Glucose
Moves materials against concentration gradients across the plasma membrane using ATP to change the shape of the carrier protein: Primary active transport
In the Sodium Potassium pump what powers the shape change of the transporter? Phosphorlation
Regarding the Sodium Potassium pump mechanism, which is not true? Sodium binding causes phosphate to be released.
Uses concentration gradient of a second substance, such as Sodium or Hydrogen to power the shape change of a transporter, pumping a target substance across the plasma membrane against its gradient: Secondary active transport
A type of secondary active transport where both substances move in opposite directions: Antiport
The general process wherby large amounts of materials are taken into vesicles into the cell: Endocytosis
Small amounts of fluids brought into vesicles; no receptors involved: Pinocytosis
Cells attach to pathogens or debris via receptors, bring particles into vesicles: Phagocytosis
Process enabling cells of all kinds to bring in large amounts of specific molecule: Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Neutrophils can't do this; instead, they store indigestible materials in residual bodies, eventuall exploding into pus when full: Exocytosis
The cytosol is the fluid component of the cell True
Cells that require a lot of energy would have quite a few of these: Mitochondria
Site of polypeptide synthesis: Ribosomes
Makes all of the proteins needed by the cell: Rough ER
Modifies and packages proteins received via vesicles: Golgi apparatus
Site of cholesterol synthesis (liver) Smooth ER
Makes phospholipids and membranes: Rough ER
This substance enters mitochondria, giving it the energy to rephosphorylate ADP: Pyruvate
May be affected by antibiotics that kill bactera: Mitochondria
Site of steroid synthesis: Smooth ER
Site of alcohol and drug detoxification: Smooth ER
Contains enzymes that cleave off one glucose at a time from stored glucogen: Smooth ER
Mostly closely associated with Tay-Sac's DZ? Lysosomes
Not a component of the endomembrane system: Microtubules
Like ropes of woven protein, function to stabilize organelle position: Intermediate filaments
Strands of actin protein; function with myosin to cause cell movement: Microfilaments
Serve as guides for the movement of organelles: Microtubules
Vesicles containing oxidases and catalases: Peroxisomes
Vesicles containing digestive enzymes; associated with apoptosis: Lysosomes
Most closely associated with the detoxification of free radicals: Peroxisomes
Organelle that fuses with food vesicles, releaing enzymes into vesicle, digesting its contents: Lysosomes
Which is not associated with Tay-Sac's DZ? Has a cure
Helps remodel the body during development by digesting old cells: Lysosomes
Structure includes nine triplets of microtubules: Cilia, flagella, centriole, basal bodies
Structure of 9 paired microtubules plus two in the middle: Cilia & Flagella
Short and very numerous; move fluid across surface of stationary cells: Cilia
Cells that absorb quite a bit tend to have these: Microvilli
Function of nuclear pore complex proteins: Regulate what enters/leaves the nucleus
Contains genes (DNA) necessary to code for polypeptides needed by the cell: Nucleus
Chromatin is made of: DNA + histone proteins
Assemble ribosome components: Nucleolus
Created by: rpm824