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Glands and Hormones

Endocrine System

What hormone does the thyroid gland produce? Thyroxine
Define the term Exocrine Secretes substances through a duct (not hormones)
Define the term Endocrine Secretes substances (hormones) directly into the blood stream
What are hormones? Chemical messengers
What type of gland produces hormones? Endocrine glands
What do we call the areas of the body affected by hormones? Target cell or target tissue
What hormones are produced in the Pancreas? Insulin and Glucagon
What does insulin do? Lowers glucose levels
What does Glucagon do? Raises glucose levels
What hormones are produced in the Ovaries? Oestrogen and Progesterone
What hormone is produced in the Testis? Testosterone
What do target cells need to receive the hormone? A correct receptor
Where are receptors on cells found? In the cell membrane
What are receptors likely to be made of? Proteins
What are steroid hormones made from? Lipid molecules often adapted from cholesterol.
Is the steroid hormone able to pass through the membrane? Yes, it goes into the cell
Where will the steroid hormone found the receptor? In the cytoplasm of the cell
What does the hormone act on in the cell? The DNA
Why can steroid hormones pass through a plasma membrane? They are lipid soluble
Give an example of a steroid hormone Sex hormones
What is a peptide hormone made from? Protein molecules
What happens to the peptide hormone when it reaches the cell surface? The hormone binds to the membrane
What is required for a peptide hormone to deliver a message within the cell? A second messenger
What is meant by a secondary messanger? It receives and transfers a message from the hormone to within the cell
Why can peptide hormones not pass through a plasma membrane? They are not lipid soluble and are the wrong shape to get through the channels
Give 3 examples of peptide hormones Adrenaline, Insulin and Glucagon
What is an adrenaline molecule derived from? Amino acids
What is the name of the enzyme associated with the receptor for adrenaline? Adenyl cyclase enzyme
What happens to the enzyme when the adrenaline binds? It becomes active and changes shape.
What does the first messenger do? (the hormone) Find the target cell and binds to the receptor
What are the two main regions called on the adrenal glands? The medulla and the cortex
What 5 other functions do the adrenal glands help to carry out? Increase sweating, increase heart-rate, hairs stand on end, higher blood pressure, dilate bronchioles (to allow in more oxygen)
What is the master gland? Pituitory gland
What is the control centre near the pituitory gland? The Hypothalamus
What is the effect called when small amounts of one hormone is released from the hypothalamus resulting in production of the final hormone Cascade Effect
What hormone does the pituitory gland produce the regulates water balance? ADH
Created by: saltpopcorn