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Ch 2 Life

THE CHEMICAL FOUNDATION OF LIFE

TermDefinition
acid molecule that donates hydrogen ions and increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
adhesion attraction between water molecules and other molecules
aliphatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon consisting of a linear chain of carbon atoms
anion negative ion that is formed by an atom gaining one or more electrons
aromatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon consisting of closed rings of carbon atoms
atom the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element
atomic mass calculated mean of the mass number for an element’s isotopes
atomic number total number of protons in an atom
balanced chemical reactions statement of a chemical reaction with the number of each type of atom equalized for both the products and reactants
base molecule that donates hydroxide ions or otherwise binds excess hydrogen ions and decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
buffer substance that prevents a change in pH by absorbing or releasing hydrogen or hydroxide ions
calorie amount of heat required to change the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
capillary action occurs because water molecules are attracted to charges on the inner surfaces of narrow tubular structures such as glass tubes, drawing the water molecules to the sides of the tubes
cation positive ion that is formed by an atom losing one or more electrons
chemical bond interaction between two or more of the same or different atoms that results in the formation of molecules
chemical reaction process leading to the rearrangement of atoms in molecules
chemical reactivity the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other
chesion intermolecular forces between water molecules caused by the polar nature of water; responsible for surface tension
compound substance composed of molecules consisting of atoms of at least two different elements
chemical bond type of strong bond formed between two of the same or different elements; forms when electrons are shared between atoms
dissociation release of an ion from a molecule such that the original molecule now consists of an ion and the charged remains of the original, such as when water dissociates into H+ and OH
electrolyte necessary for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contractions and water balance
electron configuration arrangement of electrons in an atom’s electron shell (for example, 1s22s22p6)
electron orbital how electrons are spatially distributed surrounding the nucleus; the area where an electron is most likely to be found
electron transfer movement of electrons from one element to another; important in creation of ionic bonds
electronegativity ability of some elements to attract electrons (often of hydrogen atoms), acquiring partial negative charges in molecules and creating partial positive charges on the hydrogen atoms
electron negatively charged subatomic particle that resides outside of the nucleus in the electron orbital; lacks functional mass and has a negative charge of –1 unit
element one of 118 unique substances that cannot be broken down into smaller substances; each element has unique properties and a specified number of protons
enantiomers molecules that share overall structure and bonding patterns, but differ in how the atoms are three dimensionally placed such that they are mirror images of each other
equilibrium steady state of relative reactant and product concentration in reversible chemical reactions in a closed system
evaporation separation of individual molecules from the surface of a body of water, leaves of a plant, or the skin of an organism
functional group group of atoms that provides or imparts a specific function to a carbon skeleton
geometric isomer isomer with similar bonding patterns differing in the placement of atoms alongside a double covalent bond
heat of vaporization of water high amount of energy required for liquid water to turn into water vapor
hydrocarbon molecule that consists only of carbon and hydrogen
hydrogen bond weak bond between slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms to slightly negatively charged atoms in other molecules
hydrophilic describes ions or polar molecules that interact well with other polar molecules such as water
hydrophobic describes uncharged non-polar molecules that do not interact well with polar molecules such as water
inert gas (also, noble gas) element with filled outer electron shell that is unreactive with other atoms
ionic bond chemical bond that forms between ions with opposite charges (cations and anions)
Ion atom or chemical group that does not contain equal numbers of protons and electrons
irreversible chemical reaction chemical reaction where reactants proceed uni-directionally to form products
isomers molecules that differ from one another even though they share the same chemical formula
isotope one or more forms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons
law of mass action chemical law stating that the rate of a reaction is proportional to the concentration of the reacting substances
litmus paper (also, pH paper) filter paper that has been treated with a natural water-soluble dye that changes its color as the pH of the environment changes so it can be used as a pH indicator
mass number total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
matter anything that has mass and occupies space
molecule two or more atoms chemically bonded together
neutron uncharged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu
noble gas see inert gas
nonpolar covalent bond type of covalent bond that forms between atoms when electrons are shared equally between them
nucleus core of an atom; contains protons and neutrons
octet rule rule that atoms are most stable when they hold eight electrons in their outermost shells
orbital region surrounding the nucleus; contains electrons
organic molecule any molecule containing carbon (except carbon dioxide)
pH paper see litmus paper
pH scale scale ranging from zero to 14 that is inversely proportional to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
periodic table organizational chart of elements indicating the atomic number and atomic mass of each element; provides key information about the properties of the elements
polar covalent bond type of covalent bond that forms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons, resulting in the creation of slightly positive and slightly negative charged regions of the molecule
product molecule found on the right side of a chemical equation
proton positively charged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amu and a charge of +1
radioisotope isotope that emits radiation composed of subatomic particles to form more stable elements
reactant molecule found on the left side of a chemical equation
reversible chemical reaction chemical reaction that functions bi-directionally, where products may turn into reactants if their concentration is great enough
solvent substance capable of dissolving another substance
specific heat capacity the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius
sphere of hydration when a polar water molecule surrounds charged or polar molecules thus keeping them dissolved and in solution
structural isomers molecules that share a chemical formula but differ in the placement of their chemical bonds
substituted hydrocarbon hydrocarbon chain or ring containing an atom of another element in place of one of the backbone carbons
surface tension tension at the surface of a body of liquid that prevents the molecules from separating; created by the attractive cohesive forces between the molecules of the liquid
valence shell outermost shell of an atom
van der Waals interaction very weak interaction between molecules due to temporary charges attracting atoms that are very close together
Created by: v_saldi