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nucleotide an organic molecule that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base; the basic buliding block of a nucleic -acid chain.
double helix modle that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
complimentary base pairing rules the rules stating that in DNA cytosine paris with guanine and adenone pairs with thymine and that in RNA cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with uracil
replication the process by which DNA is copied
DNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
central dogma theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins
RNA ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
transcription the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
RNA ploymerase an ezyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of DNA molecule as a template
mRNA messenger RNA; form of RNA that carries genetic informaiton from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis
rRNA ribosomal RNA; form of RNA tha tis in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock
tRNA transfer RNA; form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
translation the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specifiy the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
condon in DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start or stop signal
anticodon a region of a tRNA molecule that consists of a sequence of three bases that is complementary to an mRNA codon
mutation a change in the structure or amount of the genetic material of an organism
point mutation a muation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
frameshift mutation a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
mutagen agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organims
DNA fingerprint a pattern of DNA characteristics that is unique, or nearly so, to an individual organism
protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of cells
amino acid a compound of a class of simple organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group and an amino group that combine to form proteins
chemical reaction process by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
reactant a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
activation energy the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
catalyst substance that decreases the activation energy and increases the reaction rate in a chemical reaction
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
monomer molecular subunit of a polymer
polymer large molecule that is formed by more than five monomers, or small units
Created by: lpgullett