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Biomolecules and the Biochemistry of Food

What trace elements does the body need? Copper, Zinc and Iron
What minerals does the body need? Potassium, Calcium, Sodium, Magnesium and Chlorine
What are biomolecules? Biomolecules are chemicals that are made inside a living thing eg: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and vitamins
What elements are carbohydrates made of? What are the 3 main forms of carbohydrate? Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Explain the word monosaccharides Monosaccharides provide us with short term energy. They are made up of one glucose molecule. Example include glucose and fructose. They taste sweet and dissolve in water.
Explain the word disaccharides Disaccharides also provide us with energy. They are made up of 2 glucose molecules bonded together.Examples include sucrose made from glucose and fructose. Maltose and lactose are also disaccharides.
Polysaccharides Polysaccharides are made up of many saccharide molecules boned together. They provide us with long term energy. There are 3 types of polysaccharides: Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen.
What is the difference between cellulose and glycogen? Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in plants. It makes up cell walls.It provides us with roughage and prevents constipation. Paper and Cotton are examples. Glycogen is a polysaccharide found in animals. Stores carbohydrates in the liver and muscles.
What are lipids? Lipids are made up of a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Solid lipids are known as fats while liquid lipids are known as oils.
What are the functions of lipids 1: They provide a vital energy store for the body. 2: They provide insulation from the cold. 3: They form the membranes around the cell. These are called phospholipids.
Comment on the composition of proteins Proteins are made from C, H, O and N or S. They consist of a chain of amino acids liked by peptide bonds. Proteins are often called polypeptides. They have a folded 3D shape. They are responsible for the growth and repair of cells.
What is the function of proteins? Proteins make up Enzymes which are biological catalysts that speed up or slow down a chemical reaction but are not used up in the reaction itself. Hormones control our metabolism and body functions. Transport across membranes is done by proteins.
Give 2 examples of structural proteins Finger nails and hair are made from the protein keratin.
What are vitamins? Vitamins are organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts for normal biochemical functioning.
What are the 2 categories of vitamins? Fat soluble (A,D,E,K) and Water soluble (B,C)
What is the scientific name, source, function and deficiency disease of Vitamin A? Retinol, carrots, healthy retina, night blindness.
What is the scientific name, source, function and deficiency disease of Vitamin C? Ascorbic acids, citrus fruit, healthy connective tissue, scurvy
What is the scientific name, source, function and deficiency disease of Vitamin D? Calciferol, dairy products, helps our body absorb calcium, ricketts
What are minerals? Minerals are required by both plants and animals in small amounts for healthy cells and biomolecules like haemoglobin and chlorophyll.
What is the function of magnesium and calcium in plants? Calcium is used to form the cement which sticks plant cells together. Magnesium is needed for the manufacture of chlorophyll.
Give 3 uses of water in the human body. 1: It is an excellent solvents for salts and sugars. 2: It is an excellent transport medium. 3: It has a high heat capacity and helps regulate our body temperature.
What is the difference between an anabolic and a catabolic reaction? An anabolic reaction is the sticking together of small molecules to create larger ones eg: Photosynthesis. A catabolic reaction is the breaking down of large molecules into smaller one eg: Respiration. CRAP: Catabolic Respiration Anabolic Photosynthesis
What is the test and colour change for starch? Iodine. Colour change: red/brown to blue black
Test for reducing sugars? Colour change for a positive result? Add some Benedicts solution of Fehlings I and II to the solution. Heat but do not boil the solution in a water bath. If reducing sugars are present the blue colour changes to a brick red precipitate.
Chemical test for protein? Colour change for a positive result? Sodium Hydroxide and Copper Sulphate. A purple colour appears if protein is present.
What is the test and colour change for lipids? Rub some of the food on some brown paper. If a translucent spot remains as it dries lipids are present.
Created by: cbsbiology