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Ch 2: Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Evolution The change in the characteristics of a population over time
Chemical Evolution The leading scientific explanation for the origin of life.
Atom Basic unit of an element
Nucleus the positively charged central core of an atom, consisting of protons and neutrons and containing nearly all its mass.
Proton The positively charged subatomic particle
Neutron the electrically neutral subatomic particle
Electron the negatively charged subatomic particle
Element A substance containing a specific number of protons
Atomic Number The number of protons in an element
Isotope Forms of an element with a different amount of neutrons
Mass Number The sum of protons and neutrons in an element
Orbital Specific regions of an atomic nuclei that electrons move around it
Electron Shell levels in an orbital
Valence Electron electrons found in the outermost shell of an atom
Chemical Bond An attractive force binding two atoms together
Molecule substances held together by covalent bonds
Covalent Bond A strong attraction where two atoms share electron pairs
Nonpolar Covalent Bond when two atoms are bound together with relatively equal electronegativity
Polar Covalent Bond electrons are shared unequally between atoms differing in electronegativity
Electronegativity a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
Polarity a molecule having a positive or negative charge
Ionic Bond A bond that results in the complete transfer of electrons
Ion An atom or molecule that carries a full charge
Cation A positively charged Ion
Anion A negatively charged ion
Single Bond is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving two bonding electrons
Double Bond a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Triple Bond a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two
Molecular Formula Contains the number and types of atoms in an molecule
Molecular Weight The weight of the entire molecule, includes all the atoms
Molarity a common unit of solute concentration equal to the number of moles of a dissolve solute in 1 liter of solution
Solution A homogeneous solution between two mixtures
Solvent Agent for dissolving substances and getting them into a solution
Solute A substance dissolved in another subtance
Hydrogen Bond a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
Hydrophilic Water loving
Hydrophobic water fearing
Cohesion like molecules cling together due to attractive forces
Adhesion unlike molecules cling together due to attractive forces
Surface Tension cohesive force that causes molecules at the surface of a liquid to stick together
Specific Heat the amount of energy to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celisus
Hydrogen Ion A single proton with a +1 charge.
Hydroxide Ion an oxygen and hydrogen atom joined by a single covalent bond and has a negative charge
Acid any compound that gives up protons or accepts electrons during a chemical reaction that releases hydrogen when dissolved in water
Base any compound that acquires protons or gives up electrons during a chemical reaction or accepts hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
Acid-Base Reaction
Acidity
Alkalinity
pH
Homeostasis
Chemical Reaction
Reactant
Product
Chemical Equilibrium
Concentration
Endothermic
Exothermic
Energy
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Temperature
Heat
First Law of Thermodynamics
Chemical Energy
Mechanical Energy
Spontaneous Chemical Reactions
Nonspontaneous Chemical Reactions
ΔH
Entropy
Enthalpy
ΔS
Second law of Thermodynamics
Gibbs Free Energy
Exergonic
Endergonic
Photons
Organic Molecules
Inorganic Molecules
Functional Groups
Amino Group
Carboxyl Group
Carboxylic Acid
Hydroxyl Group
Phosphate Group
Created by: Jpratt714