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Mid Term Review

What is homeostasis? Balance within a living organism.
Failure to maintain homoestatis may result in...? disfunction or death.
Homeostatis is maintained using ___________ mechanisms? feedback
What is a feedback mechanism? Cycles in which the product of one reaction causes another reaction to start or stop.
What is dynamic equilibrium? A balanced state created by many small, opposing changes.
What is metabolism? The same 7 basic chemical processes occuring in living organisms.
1. Nutrition Using nutrients for growth, repair, and energy.
2. Respiration Converts energy from food into a usable form.
3. Assimilation Making complex chemicals from simple substances.
4. Transportation Distributing and absorbing materials throughout the body.
5. Regulation Control and coordination of life processes.
6. Excretion Removing of wastes.
7. Reproduction Passing on genes to offspring.
What are inorganic chemicals? Simple compounds such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen.
Water (H2O) Most common substance in all living things; needed to perform chemical reactions and transportation through the body.
Oxygen (O2) Needed by most organisms for respiration; released by plants during photosynthesis.
Aerobic respiration Uses oxygen to gett energy from glucose (sugar); gives more energy to complex organisms (ex. humans).
Anerobic respiration Does not use oxygen to get energy from glucose (sugar); gives less energy and is used by simple organisms (ex. bacteria).
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Taken in by plants to make glucose (energy). Also a waste product of aerobic respiration.
Nitrogen (N2) Most common gas in air (70%). Needed to make proteins.
What are organic compounds? Larger more complex compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins made from simpler substances.
Carbohydrates Simple and complex sugars used by the body for energy.
Lipids Fats and oils used for energy storage and cell building.
Proteins Most plentiful compounds in the body; used to carry out all body activities.
What are examples of proteins? Hormones and neurotransmitters, cell receptors, antibodies, and enzymes.
What is a cell? Basic units of the body that control biological processes.
Cell Theory #1 All living things are made of cells. Unicellular or multicellular.
Cell Theory #2 Cells are the basic units needed to carry on life processes.
Cell Theory #3 All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cell organelles The 8 smaller components that make up a cell.
1. Nucleus Controls the cell and contains hereditary material (DNA).
2. Cytoplasm Fluid in the cell made mostly of water; helps transport materials.
3. Mitochondria Gives the cell energy; chemical respiration.
4. Ribosomes Makes proteins from amino acids.
5. Vacuole Stores food, water, and waste.
6. Cell membrane Controls what enters and leaves cell; protects interior of cell.
7. Chloroplasts (plant cells only) Carries out photosynthesis.
8. Cell wall (non-animal cells only) Provides shape, structure, and protection.
Nutrition Taking in nutrients (food) for energy, growth, and repair.
Ingestion Eating of food.
Digestion Mechanical or chemical breakdown of food so nutrients can be absorbed into the body.
Autotrophic nutrition (self feeding) Organisms that take in raw materials and convert them into nutrients (ex. photosynthesis in plants).
Heterotrophic nutrition Other feeding. Organisms who ingest nutrients made by other organisms. (ex. humans and all animals).
A single fertilized cell is a...? Zygote
Humans grow as a result of cell division called...? Mitosis
Created by: megmezzoprete