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Anatomy ch 4

Integumentary system

What is simple squamous epithelium? A type of epithelial tissue that looks like flat, fried-egg-looking cells.
Where is simple squamous epithelium found? Lines the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. Also forms the epithelial layer of serous membranes.
What is Endothelium? A type of simple squamous epithelium that is found lining the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems.
What is Mesothelium? A type of simple squamous epithelium that forms the epithelial layer of serous membranes.
What is the function of simple squamous epithelium? Filtration or diffusion and secretion of serous membranes.
What is simple cuboidal epithelium? A single layer of cube like cells.
Where is simple cuboidal epithelium found? Covers the surface of ovary; lines kidney tubules and smaller ducts of many glands.
What is the function of simple cuboidal epithelium? secretion and absorption.
what is nonciliated simple columnar epithelium? A single layer of columnlike cells with oval nuclei near the base of cells. Also contains goblet cells.
What is a goblet cell? Modified epithelial cells that secrete mucus at their apical surfaces.
Where is nonciliated simple columnar epithelium found? Lines gastrointestinal tract (from stomach to anus), ducts of many glands, and gallbladder.
What is the function of nonciliated simple columnar epithelium? Secretion and absorption.
What is ciliated simple columnar epithelium? A single layer of columnlike cells with nuclei near base of cells. Contains goblet cells and hairs on their apical surface.
Where is ciliated simple columnar epithelium found? Lines some bronchioles, uterine (Fallopian) tubes, uterus, central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of the brain.
What is the function of simple columnar epithelium? Removes waste toward throat, where they can be coughed up or swallowed.
What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium? All cells are attached to basement membrane in a single layer, but some cells do not extend to the apical surface.
Where is pseudostratified columnar epithelium found? Ciliated lines airways of most of upper respiratory tract; nonciliated lines larger ducts of many glands, epididymis, and part of the male urethra.
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium? Ciliated secretes mucus that traps foreign particles and sweeps them up for elimination. Nonciliated functions as absorption and protection.
What is stratified squamous epithelium? Has two or more layers of cells. Cells shape varies the deeper the layer.
Where is stratified squamous epithelium found? Lines wet surfaces (lining of mouth, esophagus, vagina) and covers the tongue.
What is the function of stratified squamous epithelium? Protection against abrasion water loss, ultraviolet radiation and foreign invasion. First line of defense against microbes.
What is transitional epithelium? Has a variable appearance. When relaxed looks like stratified cuboidal epithelium except apical layer. When stretched cells look like stratified squamous epithelium.
Where is transitional epithelium found? Lines urinary bladder and portions of the ureters and urethra.
What is the function of transitional epithelium? Allows urinary organs to stretch and maintain protective lining while holding variable amounts of fluid without erupting.
What is an endocrine gland? Secretions enter interstitial fluid and diffuse directly into bloodstream without flowing through a duct.
What is an exocrine gland? secretory products released into ducts that empty onto surface of a covering and lining epithelium, such as skin surface of lumen of hollow organs.
Where can endocrine glands be found? Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid and parathyroid, adrenal gland.
Where can exocrine glands be found? Sweat, oil, and earwax glands of the skin; digestive glands such as salivary glands and pancreas.
What is the function of endocrine glands? Hormones regulate many metabolic and physiological activities to maintain homeostasis.
What is the function of exocrine glands? Produce substances such as sweat to help lower body temperature.
What are the two types of embryonic connective tissues? Mesenchyme and Mucous connective tissue.
What is mesenchyme? irregularly shaped cells embedded in semi fluid ground substance that contains delicate reticular fibers.
Where is mesenchyme found? Almost exclusively underneath the skin and along developing bones of the embryo.
What is the function of mesenchyme? Forms almost all other types of connective tissue.
What is mucous connective tissue? Contains widely scattered fibroblasts embedded in jellylike ground substance that contains fine collagen fibers.
Where is mucous connective tissue found? Umbilical cord of fetus.
What is the function of mucous connective tissue? Support.
What are the 3 loose connective tissues? Areolar, adipose, and reticular connective tissues.
What is Areolar connective tissue? One of the most widely distributed connective tissues. Consists of collagen, elastic and reticular fibers and several kinds of cells like fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes, mast cells, and some white blood cells.
Where is Areolar connective tissue found? In and around nearly every body structure ( called "packing material" of the body). In subcutaneous layer deep to skin, papillary region of the dermis of the skin.
What is the function of Areolar connective tissue? Strength, elasticity, and support.
What is Adipose Tissue? Contains cells derived from fribroblasts (called adipocytes) that are filled with triglycerides. Looks like honey combs.
Where is Adipose Tissue found? Where ever Areolar connective tissue is located. subcutaneous layer deep to skin, around heart and kidney, yellow bone marrow.
What is the function of Adipose tissue? Reduces heat loss through skin; serves as and energy reserve; supports and protects organs.
What is Reticular connective tissue? A fine interlacing network of fibers and cells (thinner than collagen)
Where is Reticular connective tissue found? Stroma of liver, spleen, lymph nodes; red bone marrow; reticular lamina of basement membrane; around blood vessels and muscle.
What is the function of Reticular connective tissue? Forms stroma of organs; binds smooth muscle tissue cells; filters and removes worn out blood cells in spleen and microbes in lymph nodes.
What are the 3 dense connective tissues? Dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, and elastic connective tissue.
What is dense regular connective tissue? Forms shiny white extracellular matrix; mainly collagen fibers regularly arranged in bundles with fibroblasts in rows between them.
Where can dense regular connective tissue be found? Forms tendons(muscle to bone), most ligaments (bone to bone), and aponeuroses (sheetlike tendons that bind muscle to muscle or muscle to bone).
What is the function of dense regular connective tissue? Provides strong attachments between various structures. Tissue structure withstands pulling along long axis of fibers.
What is dense irregular connective tissue? Made up of collagen fibers; usually irregularly arranged with a few fibroblasts.
Where can dense irregular connective tissue be found? Often occurs in sheets, such as fascia, reticular region of the derms, fibrous pericardium of the heart, joint capsules, membrane capsules around various organs (kidney, liver, testes, lymph nodes); also in heart valves.
What is the function of dense irregular connective tissue? Provides tensile (pulling) strength in many directions
What is elastic connective tissue? Contains predominantly elastic fivers with fibroblasts between them;
Where can elastic connective tissue be found? Lung tissue, walls of elastic arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, and some ligaments between vertebrae.
What is the function of elastic connective tissue? Allows stretching of various organs; is strong and can recoil to original shape after being stretched.
What are the 3 cartilage connective tissues? Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage.
What is hyaline cartilage? Contains a resilient gel as ground substance; prominent chondrocytes are found in lacunae surrounded by perichondrium.
Where can hyaline cartilage be found? Most abundent cartilage in the body; appears at the ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs, nose, parts of larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchial tubes, embryonic and fetal skeleton.
What is the function of hyaline cartilage? Provides smooth surfaces for movement at joints, flexibility, and support; weakest type of cartilage and can be fractured.
What is fibrocartilage? Has chondrocytes among clearly visible thick bundles of collagen fibers within extracellular matrix; lacks perichondrium.
Where can fibrocartilage be found? Pubic symphasis, intervertebral discs, minisci of knee, portions of tendons that insert into cartilage.
What is the function of fibrocartilage? Support and joining structures together. strength and rigidity make it the strongest type of cartilage.
What is elastic cartilage? Contains chondrocytes in threadlike network of elastic fibers within the extracellular matrix; perichondrium present.
Where can elastic cartilage be found? Epiglottis, auricle (external ear), auditory (eustachian) tubes.
What is the function of elastic cartilage? Provides strength and elasticity; maintains shape of certain structures.
What is compact osseous tissue? Consists of osteons that contain lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, caniculi and central canals.
Where can compact osseous tissue be found? Various bones in the body.
What is the function of compact osseous bone tissue? Support, protection, storage; houses blood forming tissues; serves as levers that act with muscle tissue to enable movement.
What is blood? Contains plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets (thrombocytes).
Where is blood found? Vessels, and heart chambers.
What is the function of blood? Erythrocytes transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide; Leukocytes carry on phagocytosis and mediate allergic reactions and immune system responses; platelets are essential for blood clotting.
What membrane lines the body cavities that open to the outside? Mucous membranes
What membrane lines the cavities that do not open to the outside? Serous membranes
What membrane lines joints? Synovial membranes
What are the 3 muscular tissues? Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle tissue.
What is skeletal muscle tissue? Consists of long, cylindrical, striated fibers, multinucleated cell with nuclei at the periphery. Considered voluntary because it can contract or relax by conscious control.
Where can skeletal muscle be found? Usually attaches to bone by tendons.
What is the function of skeletal muscle? Motion, posture, heat production and protection.
What is cardiac muscle tissue? Consists of branched, striated fibers with usually only one centrally located nucleus. Attached end to end by transverse thickenings of plasma membranes called intercalated discs.
Where is cardiac muscle found? Heart wall
What is the function of Cardiac muscle tissue? Pumps blood to all parts of the body; involuntary control.
What is smooth muscle tissue? Consists of fibers, nonstriated. Fibers are small spindle shaped cells thickest in the middle, tapering at each end, and containing a single, centrally located nucleus.
Where is smooth muscle located? Iris of the eye; walls of blood vessels, airways to lungs, stomach, intestine, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and uterus.
What is the function of smooth muscle tissue? Motion (constriction of blood vessels and airways, propulsion of foods through gastrointestinal tract, contraction of urinary bladder and gallbladder).
What is nervous tissue? Consists of 1 neuron and neuroglia.
Where is nervous tissue found? Nervous system.
What is the function of nervous tissue? Exhibits sensitivity to various types of stimule; converts stimuli into nerve impulses; conducts nerve impulses to other neurons, muscle fibers or glands.
What are the 5 layers/regions of the skin? Epidermis, dermis, papillary, reticular, hypodermis.
What type of cell(s) make up the epidermis? Epithelial tissue.
What is contained in the reticular region of th edermis? This tissue is made up of thick collagen fibers, scattered fibroblasts and various wandering cells(macrophages), and contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands, blood vessels, and nerves.
What type of cell(s) make up the hypodermis? Adipose tissue.
Is the epidermis avascular? Yas
Is the dermis avascular? No
What does the Pacinian Corpuscle do? Detects deep pressure
What are the 4 layers of the epidermis of thin skin (top to bottom)? Stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale.
What layer is present in thick skin but not thin skin? Stratum lucidum
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis of thick skin (top to bottom)? Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale.
What is contained in the papillary region of the dermis? This tissue is made up of thin collagen and thin elastic fibers. It contains dermal papillae, the corpuscle of touch or meissner corpuscle and free nerve endings.
Created by: torrisageman