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Biology Module #8

All vocabulary words Apologia Biology module #8

TermDefinition
True breeding If an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to its offspring, we say that this organism has bred true with regard to that charcteristic
Mendel's principle #1 The traits of an organism are determined by its genes.
Mendel's principle #2 Each organism has two alleles that make up the genotype for a given trait.
Mendel's principle #3 In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes ONLY ONE of its alleles to its offspring.
Mendel's principle #4 In each genotype, there is a dominant allele. If it exists in an organism, the phenotype is determined by that allele.
Allele One of a pair of genes that occupies the same position on homologous chromosomes
Genotype Two-letter set that represents the alleles an organism possesses for a certain trait
Phenotype The observable expression of an organism's genes
Homozygous genotype A genotype in which both alleles are identical
Heterozygous genotype A genotype with two different alleles
Dominant allele An allele that will determine the phenotype if just one is present in the genotype
Recessive allele An allele that will not determine phenotype unless the genotype is homozygous in that allele
Pedigree A diagram that follows a particular phenotype through several generations
Monohybrid cross A cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait
Dihybrid cross A cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits
Autosomes Chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual
Sex chromosomes Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Antigen A protein that, when injected in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
Autosomal inheritance Inheritance of a genetic trait not on a sex chromosome
Genetic disease carrier A person who is heterozygous in a recessive genetic disorder
Sex-linked inheritance Inheritance of a genetic trait located on the sex chromosome
Mutation A radical chemical change in one or more alleles
Change in chromosome structure A situation in which a chromosome loses or gains genes during meiosis
Change in chromosome number A situation in which abnormal cellular event in meiosis lead to either none of a particular chromosome in the gamete or more than one chromosome in the gamete
Created by: Wolverine36