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Bio12 Circulatory

SLS Bio 12 Circulatory (R.L.)

TermDefinition
Anterior vena cava Vein that delivers blood from the anterior part of the body into the right atrium.
Antibody A class of Y shaped protein that is released by a type of white blood cell in response to the presence of foreign antigens.
Antigen A substance capable of stimulating the release of antibodies.
Aorta The largest artery of the body conducts oxygenated blood out of the left ventricle.
Arterial duct Fetal artery that connects the pulmonary trunk to the aorta thus allowing some blood to bypass the nonfunctional lungs.
Atrioventricular valve large valves made of connective tissue that allow blood to pass from the atria to the ventricles of the heart, but not the other way.
Autonomic nervous system A sub-division of the nervous system. Strictly an effector system consisting of sets of two effectors.
Atrioventricular node (AV) One of two pieces of nodal tissue in the heart. The AV node is under the influence of impulses from the SA node. Generates impulses that travel through a nerve bundle down the septum to a branching set of nerve fibres called Purkinje fibres.
Blood A type of connective tissue consisting of plasma and formed elements.
Blood pressure The force that blood exerts on blood vessel walls. Blood pressure is variable in arteries due to the pumping action of the heart and diminishes with distance from the heart.
Blood velocity The speed of blood through a blood vessel. Blood velocity is highest and most variable in arteries, slowest in capillaries.
Blood vessel A tubular structure that carries blood. Generally considered to be three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries.
Capillary- tissue fluid exchange The exchange of fluid materials between blood in a capillary and extra-cellular fluids in tissues as the blood travels through a capillary bed.
Carotid artery A branch of the aorta conducting blood to the head. There is a right and a left carotid artery.
Chordae tendineae Small tendons which attach the AV valves to muscular extensions from the inside walls of the ventricles. These tendons prevent the AV valve flaps from inverting during systole.
Coronary artery Blood vessels that serve the heart muscle. Initial branches of the aorta going directly to the heart muscle as the aorta ascends out of the left ventricle.
Coronary vein Blood vessels that serve the heart muscle. A set of veins that conduct blood from the heart tissue to the vena cavae as it enters the right atrium.
Diastolic pressure The pressure that blood exerts outwards on the walls of arteries when the heart is not contracting. Normal diastolic pressure measures about 80 mmHg at the brachial artery.
Fetal circulation Refers to the circulatory pattern of an unborn mammal.
Heart rate The number of times a heart contracts in one minute.
Hepatic portal vein The major vein that takes nutrient-rich blood from from the small intestines to the liver. Portals veins are distinct in that they have capillaries beds on both sides.
Hepatic vein The major vein that conducts blood from the liver back into the inferior vena cava.
Hypertension Means high blood pressure.
Hypotension Means low blood pressure.
Iliac artery The major blood vessels of the legs. The dorsal aorta branches to form the iliac arteries.
Iliac vein The major blood vessels of the legs. The iliac veins join together to form the inferior vena cava.
Jugular vein The veins that conduct blood from the head down the neck. They join the superior vena cava allowing the blood to enter the right atrium so it can be pumped into the pulmonary circuit.
Left atrium The receiving chambers of the heart. The atria pass blood along to the ventricles to be pumped out of the heart. Above the left ventricle.
Left ventricle A chamber in the heart that pumps the blood to the body. Left ventricle marks the beginning of the systemic circuit.
Lymph capillaries The minute beginnings of lymph ducts that are located in tissue spaces of the body. These capillaries absorb the fluids that become lymph.
Lymph node A spot along lymph ducts, usually where two or more ducts join together. Nodes house white blood cells.
Lymphatic system The system that is made up of all the vessels and nodes that transport and clean lymph.
Lymphatic veins Thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph
Mesenteric artery The blood vessel that conducts blood to the intestines.
Oval opening A valve allowing blood to pass from the right ventricle of a fetal heart into the left ventricle.
Plasma The fluid portion of blood. Plasma is mostly water (91%).
Platelets A type of blood cell formed by the fragmentation of a megakaryotype. These cells function for blood clotting.
Posterior vena cava The major vein that drains the blood from the body regions posterior to the heart.
Pulmonary arteries The right and left pulmonary arteries conduct blood to the right and left lungs respectively.
Pulmonary circulation The portions of the circulatory system that relate to the lungs.
Pulmonary trunk The pulmonary trunk conducts blood out of the right ventricle.
Pulmonary veins The pulmonary veins conduct blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
Purkinje fibres These are nerve tracts that begin at the AV node in the right atrium, extend down the septum of the heart and out into the massive walls of the ventricle.
Red blood cell Small cells that are mass prodcued by the red bone marrow. These cells contain hemoglobin which transports oxygen.
Renal artery The artery that is a branch of the aorta and conducts blood into the kidney. There is a right and left renal artery.
Renal vein The vein that conducts blood out of a kidney and into the posterior vena cava. There is a right and left renal vein.
Right atrium The receiving chambers of the heart. The atria pass blood along to the ventricles to be pumped out of the heart. Above the right ventricle.
Right ventricle A chamber in the heart that pumps the blood to the body. Right ventricle marks the beginning of the pulmonary circuit.
Sinoatrial node (SA) One of the two nodes in the heart. Combination of nervous tissue and muscle tissue which allows them to initiate contractions. The SA node is also called the pace maker of the heart.
Semi-lunar valve The valves through which blood must pass to exit the heart.
Septum Dividing wall. the septum divides the two ventricle walls.
Subclavian artery Blood vessels that travel under the clavicle. These are branches of the aorta that take blood to the body walls and shoulder areas.
Subclavian vein Blood vessels that travel under the clavicle. These returns the blood to the superior vena cava which conducts blood right back to the right atrium.
Systemic circulation The part of the circulatory system that delivers oxygenated blood to the body cells. It starts at the left ventricle and ends at the right atrium.
Systolic pressure The force of the blood outwards on the arteries when the ventricles are contracting.
Total cross-sectional area
Umbilical artery The vascular components of the umbilical cord.
Umbilical vein The vascular components of the umbilical cord.
Valve A structure that controls the movement of fluids along a tube.
Veins A blood vessel that returns blood towards the heart. Veins have valves to prevent the back flow of blood.
Venous duct The tube like portion of the umbilical vein that course through the liver., thus blood can bypass the functions of the liver.
Vessel wall Walls of the blood vessels. Arteries have thicker walls than the veins. Capillaries have the thinnest walls.
White blood cell A type of blood cell that combats infection. Produced from the bone marrow.
Created by: rickli1