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Life Science Ch. 2

Life Science Chapter 2

TermDefinition
carbohydrate one or more sugar molecules
cell theory living things are made of one or more cells; the cell is the smallest unit of life; new cells come from preexisting cells
lipid large macromolecule that does not dissolve in water
nucleic acid macromolecule that forms when a long chain of nucleotides join together
macromolecule substance that forms by joining many small molecules
protein long chain of amino acid molecules
cell membrane protects the inside of a cell from the environment
cell wall stiff structure outside the cell membrane
chloroplast membrane-bound organelle that uses light energy and makes food
cytoplasm fluid inside a cell that contains salts an other molecules
cytoskeleton network of threadlike proteins inside a cell
nucleus directs all cell activities and contains DNA
organelle membrane-bound cell structure with a specialized function
active transport movement of substances through a cell membrane using the cell's energy
diffusion movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
endocytosis process during which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane
exocytosis process during which a cell's vesicles release their contents outside the cell wall
facilitated diffusion when molecules pass through a cell membrane using transport proteins
osmosis diffusion of water molecules only through a membrane
passive transport movement of substances through a cell membrane without using energy
cellular respiration series of chemical reactions that convert energy in food molecules into ATP
fermentation reaction used to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels are low
glycolysis process by which glucose is broken down
photosynthesis series of reactions that convert light energy, water, and CO2 into glucose and give off oxygen
Created by: mrsgerue