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Bio Digestion Alex R

TermDefinition
Absorption Absorption of nutrients by the digestive system
Appendix An organ important to herbivores as it is responsible for the breaking down of cellulose which composes the cell wall. Over time, the appendix has become redundant in animals such as humans and are no longer an essential organ in our daily functions
Bile Bile is secreted by the liver and contains cholesterol, salts and waste products such as bilirubin. Bile passes out of the liver via the bile duct where it is stored in the gallbladder and released in response to a fat-containing meal
Cardiac Sphincter The somewhat thickened muscular ring surrounding the opening between the esophagus and the stomach
Chemical Digestion The process in which chemicals in the body separate large food molecules into smaller ones so they can pass through the wall
Digestive Enzyme Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body
Duodenum The first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum
Emulsification The breakdown of larger fat molecules
Epiglottis A flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the windpipe
Esophagus The part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane
Gall Bladder The small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine
Gastric Juice A thin, clear, virtually colorless acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion
Insulin A hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes
Intestinal Juice A fluid that is secreted in small quantity in the small intestine, is highly variable in constitution, and contains especially various enzymes (as erepsin, lipase, lactase, enterokinase, and amylase) and mucus—called also succus entericus
Lacteals The lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats
Large Intestine The cecum, colon, and rectum as a group
Lipase A pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of fats to fatty acids and glycerol or other alcohols
Maltase An enzyme, present in saliva and pancreatic juice, that catalyzes the breakdown of maltose and similar sugars to form glucose
Microvillus Each of a large number of minute projections from the surface of some cells
Nuclease An enzyme that cleaves the chains of nucleotides in nucleic acids into smaller units
Pancreas A large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Embedded in the pancreas are the islets of Langerhans, which secrete into the blood the hormones insulin and glucagon
Pancreatic Amylase The pancreas and salivary gland make amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy
Pancreatic Juice The clear alkaline digestive fluid secreted by the pancreas
Pepsin The chief digestive enzyme in the stomach, which breaks down proteins into polypeptides
Pepsinogen A substance that is secreted by the stomach wall and converted into the enzyme pepsin by gastric acid
Peptidase An enzyme that breaks down peptides into amino acids
Peristalsis The involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wavelike movements that push the contents of the canal forward
Pharynx The membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus
Physical Digestion Physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes
Protease An enzyme that breaks down proteins and peptides
Pyloric Sphincter A ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum
Salivary Amylase An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. Amylase is present in the saliva of humans and some other mammals, where it begins the chemical process of digestion
Salivary Gland A gland in terrestrial animals that secretes saliva. In humans, three pairs of large glands, which include the parotid glands, secrete saliva into the mouth
Small Intestine The part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine; the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Sodium Bicarbonate a soluble white powder that acts as a buffer in the small intestine
Stomach The internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine
Trypsin A digestive enzyme that breaks down proteins in the small intestine. It is secreted by the pancreas in an inactive form, trypsinogen
Villus Any of numerous minute elongated projections set closely together on a surface, typically increasing its surface area for the absorption of substances, in particular
Created by: arolston