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Exam 1 Microbiology

History, Microbiology Intro, Microbiology Intro 2, Med Micro, Antimicro, Immunol

Name 5 examples of Microbial Products. 1. Wine 2. Beer 3. Bread 4. Dairy Products (yogurt, cheese) 5. Beneficial cultures (fermentation, protein source)
What are the 4 procedures to inhibit microbes? 1. Drying 2. Salting 3. Preserves 4. Fermenting
Disease transmission: In the early 1300s - we saw the maps of the ___________ spread. In the early 1300s - maps of the PLAGUE spread. Where we saw the plague go across Europe coming out of Asia.
In which YEAR did we discover the CONCEPT OF INFECTION PROCESS? 1500s
What are 3 processes in which contribute to the infectious process? 1. Direct 2. Distant 3. Fomites
Sharing personal contact (Ex: Grandmother getting sick in a bush) is a ___________ infectious process. Direct: Personal contact that can cause infection.
Cholera/explosive diarrhea, rice weather stools that are spread via water is a _____________ type of infectious process. Distant: infection like Cholera/explosive diarrhea, rice weather stools that are spread via water. So somebody upstream can explode with diarrhea and somebody downstream can 20-30 miles away can get sick from contamination of the feces in the water.
The infectious process which are spread by inanimate objects like babies that place rattles and toys in their mouths and get infected are examples of the ____________ that cause infection. Fomites: infection spread by inanimate objects
H5N1 is a virus known as the Avian Flu that is spread by ____________. H5N1/Avian Flu is spread by POULTRY and having a close relationship between living with your animals in the same facility and coming out of Asia.
______________________________ (name ) (1632 - 1723) is a man that invented the Simple Microscope - single lens. This allowed him to start seeing small microbes. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Leeuwenhoek looked through the Simple Microscope with the single lens and looked at semen and saw ____________________, the body of living individuals swimming across the microscope. animalcules
Leeuwenhoek also wrote letters to who and what was it for in 1672 - 1723? Leeuwenhoek - wrote letter to the ROYAL SOCIETY in 1674 - 1723 to tell them that he developed a single microscope with a single lens and its benefits.
_______________ (name) invented the compound microscope in 1678. Robert Hooke
Besides semen, what else did Leeuwenhoek like to look at through his microscope that was big at the high society parties? Leeuwenhoek liked to look at DENTAL PLAQUE (bacteria in the human mouth) and saw rods, motile rods, cocci, long filaments, terpenes
Robert Hooke's compound microscope was designed with how many potential lenses? Hooke's compound microscope had 2-3 potential lenses that allows you to increase the magnification
With Robert Hooke's compound microscope, having more than just 1 lens allowed you to do what? Increase the magnification with a multiple of each lens.
Back in the day with less amount of research, many people hypothesized that things that just appeared out of nowhere occured, this is not true but is known as what? SPONTANEOUS GENERATION
________________ (name) in 1840s developed the 1st concept of medical microbiology and 1st concept of hygienic procedures. Ignaz Semmellweiss
Ignaz Semmellweiss in 1840 looked at _____________ ___________ which is known as childbirth fever. This is a fever that is associated with the birth of a child, that can affect the mother and the child. PUERPERAL FEVER
Ignax Semmellweiss also looked at Students vs. Midwives and saw that a great amount of decrease in fatalities were occuring because the midwives were doing that action? CHLORINE HAND WASHING
Ignaz Semmellweiss was published in 1860 and died when? Semmellweiss died - 1865 and everyone that that he was a quack!
Who was known as the "Father of Epidemiology"? in 1854 John Snow - 1854 is known as the "Father of Epidemiology"
How is John Snow known as the "Father of Epidemiology"? What did he do specifically? John Snow - Stopped cholera epidemic in London
How did John Snow stop the cholera epidemic in London? a. removing the pump handle b. shutting down the Broad Streep Pump c. asking the governor to bring in more nurses d. A & B D. A & B John Snow shut down the Broad Street Pump and Removed the Pump Handle
________________ (name) known in 1822 - 1895 that created the Swan-necked flasks - 1860 that killed the theory of spontaneous generation. Louis Pasteur
Pasteur also discovered a process called _____________ in 1857 - 1861 in which he looked at Aerobic and Anaerobic (first life without air) in which wine manufacturers questioned why the wine turns into vinegar. FERMENTATION - Pasteur discovered that the wine was being contaminated with organisms that would produce acetic acid with ethanol and make vinegar. Anaerobic fermentation.
Pasteur also discovered ______________ which is a process that took after his name in 1862 which is a partial killing of organisms within a substance (food, liquid) that kills the disease causing organisms. 63C for 30 min & 72C for 15 sec. PASTEURIZATION - 1862 by Pasteur. You do this to milk and foods that you eat.
Pasteur also developed a rabies vaccine by Vaccination with ____________ organisms. This term refers to decrease virulence which is a decreased ability to cause disease. EX: Flu Vaccine Vaccination with ATTENUATED organisms. Pass it multiple times outside host, decrease ability to cause disease. Once you put it back into the host, the host amounts an immune response and it kills the organism.
(True or False): Louis Pasteur showed that the presence of air did not necessarily allow the growth of organisms. True! Previously in history, people have said that the presence of air would allow the presence of organisms like in Spontaneous Generation - which is NOT true!
________________ (name) in 1867 he sprayed PHENOL in the air and on bandages that would kill microorganisms. This blocked surgical sepsis Joseph Lister - 1867
Joseph Lister is known as developing the concept of ________________ __________ that we all use today as health care workers! ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
Robert Koch was a country doctor that developed __________ ____________ ________________ in which he was able to identify the one specific single microbe that would cause the disease in patients. PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
Robert Koch proved _____________ to determine the causative agents of disease. This was originally described by J. Henle in 1840. POSTULATES
Robert Koch recognized the agents of ______ and ________ (communicable diseases) TB and Cholera
Robert Koch saw ___________ as an infective agent. These are inert elements that some bacterial species make to reside and live in bad times. With not enough nutrition, water, and too high/low temperature, some species can be inactive/dormant & come bac SPORES
Who was Robert Koch's assistant in the process of developing the Pure Culture Technique? Robert Koch's assistant was his wife, Ms. Hess, talked shop at home about growing bacteria in which she suggested agar to form surface
Ms. Hess liked to make _________ which is a fruit juice that is stabilized and that is solidified. She added agar to fruit juice. JELLY
By allowing the isolation of bacterial colony derived from a single organism, a ________ __________ can be made PURE CULTURE
___________ ___________ is the basic technique that has allowed microbiology to develop as a science. PURE CULTURE
What are 5 Pure Culture Advantages? Isolation of bacterial colony derived from a single cell on an agar surface, propagation of culture as a single species, ability to study organisms metabolically, genetically, pathogenically as unique items, assign a specific organism to a disx, med terms
Only recently have ________ _________ studies or ___-___________ studies began MIXED CULTURE or NON-CULTIVATABLE
What is Koch's Postulate? The organism MUST BE found in ALL individuals with the disx.The organism MUST BE isolated in PURE CULTURE from the INFECTED individuals. The pure culture MUST CAUSE the disease state in an EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED host.The org MUST BE RE-ISOLATED from host
With what virus did the ideaof variolation come about? SMALLPOX
Who was Lady Mary Wortley Montagu Montagu was a member of the English royalty that traveled to India and saw the reported benefits of vaccination. She brought the process of vaccination back to England. This was hghly controversial.
_______ (name) - 1998
Created by: anguyen33