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DNA AND CHROMOSOMES

QuestionAnswer
Cell Cycle The regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells.
Mitosis the division of the nucleus and its contents
Cytokinesis the process that divides the cell cytoplasm
Chromosome one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
Histones each of your chromosomes is associated with a group of proteins
Chromatin the loose combination of DNA and proteins is called chromatin
Chromatid one half of a duplicated chromosome
centromere a region of the condensed chromosome that looks pinched
Somatic Cells also called body cells, make up most of your body tissues and organs.
Gametes Sex cells-- ova, or eggs, in the female, and spermatozoa, or sperm cells in the male
homologous chromosomes are two chromosomes that have the same length and general appearance.
autosomes chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
sex chromosomes chromosomes that directly control the development of sexual characteristics.
sexual reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes that result in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents
fertilization when the nuclei of the egg and sperm cell fuse to form one nucleus
diploid a cell has two copies of each chromosome
Haploid means that a cell has only one copy of each chromosome
Meiosis a form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells.
Gametogenesis the production of gametes
sperm the male gamete
egg the female gamete
polar bodies cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
bacteriophage takes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses
nucleotides the monomers of DNA
DOUBLE HELIX two strands of DNA that wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
base pairing rule T = A, G = C
replication the process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA polymerases enzymes that form bonds between nucleotides during relication
Created by: frycal9958