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Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Chromosomes

Cell cycle the regular pattern of growth
Mitosis the division of the cell nucleus and its contents
Cytokinesis the process that divides the cell cytoplasm
Chromosome one long continuos thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
Histones a group of proteins associated with each of your chromosomes
Chromatin loose combination of DNA and proteins
Chromatid half of a duplicated chromosome
Centromere hold together sister chromatids
Telomeres structures formed from the ends of DNA molecules
Somatic Cells (A.K.A. Body Cells) make up most of your body tissue and organs
Gametes sex cells - ova, or eggs, in the female and spermatozoa, or sperm, in the male
Homologous Chromosomes two chromosomes that have the same length and general appearance
Autosomes chromosome pairs 1 - 22 chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics but not directly related to the sex or all organisms
Sex Chromosomes directly control the development of sexual characteristics
Sexual Reproduction involves the fusion of two gametes that results in off-spring that are a genetic mixture of both parents
Fertilization the fusion of an egg and sperm cell
Diploid cells have two copies of each chromosome
Haploid cells have one copy of each chromosome
Meiosis a form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells
Gametogenesis the production of gametes
Sperm male gamete
Egg female gamete
Polar Bodies cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
Traits distinguishing characteristics that are inherited
Genetics study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms
Purebred genetically uniform
Cross mating of two organisms
Law of Segregation Mendel's First Law Organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent.
Bacteriophage takes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses
Nucleotides monomers that make up DNA
Double Helix model in which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder
Base Pairing Rules thymine always pairs with adenine and cytosine always pairs with guanine
Replication the process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle
DNA Polymerase group of enzymes that bond the new nucleotides together
Created by: weikkai0060