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Ch 1: Vocabulary

Ch One Vocab

Theory An explanation for a broad class of phenomena that is supported by a wide body of evidence. It serves as a framework for the development of a new hypothesis.
Hypothesis A testable statement that explains a phenomenon or a set of observations.
Prediction A measurable or observable result of an experiment based on a particular hypothesis. A correct one provides support for the hypothesis being tested.
Cell Theory Theory that states all organisms are made of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells.
Microscope An optical instrument used for viewing very small objects.
Cell The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. It is a highly organized compartment bounded by a thin, flexible structure and contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution.
Spontaneous Generation Cells arise spontaneously from nonliving materials.
Evolution A change in the characteristics of a population over time.
Descent with Modification Phrase used by Darwin to describe his hypothesis of evolution by natural selection.
Natural Selection Process by which individuals with certain heritable traits tend to produce more surviving offspring than do individuals without them. This often leads to a change in the genetic makeup in the population.
Heritable Trait Traits that can be passed on to an offspring.
Population A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time.
Fitness The ability of an individual to produce viable offspring.
Adaption Trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment.
Artificial Selection Changes in populations that occur when humans select certain individuals to produce the most offspring.
Speciation The evolution of two or more distinct species from a single ancestral species.
Homeostasis The array of relatively stable chemical and physical conditions in an animal's cells, tissues, and organs.
Metabolism The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Tree of Life The phylogenetic family tree of organisms.
Taxonomy The branch of biology that is concerned with classification and naming of organisms.
Taxon (s) Taxa(pl) Any named group at any level of a classification system.
Binomial Nomenclature A formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts
Scientific Name Unique two part name given to each species, with a genus name followed by a species name.
Domain A taxonomic category based on similarities in basic cellular biochemistry, above the kingdom level. Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Kingdom The second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Phylum A taxonomic category above the class level and below the kingdom level.
Genus (s) Genera(pl) A taxonomic category of closely related species. It is always capitalized and italicized.
Species An evolutionary independent population or group of populations.
Prokaryote A member of the domain Bacteria or Archaea. A unicellular organism lacking a nucleus and containing relatively few organelles or cytoskeletal components.
Eukaryote A member of the domain Eukarya; an organism whose cells contain a nucleus, numerous membrane bound organelles, and an extensive cytoskeleton.
Phylogeny The evolutionary history of a group of organisms.
Phylogenetic Tree A branching diagram that depicts the evolutionary relationships among species or other taxa.
Hypothesis Testing Testing a statement that explains a phenomenon.
Null Hypothesis A hypothesis that specifies what the results of an experiment will be if the main hypothesis being tested is wrong.
Observational Study A study that draws inferences about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects, where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a control group is outside the control of the investigator.
Experimental Study A type of evaluation that seeks to determine whether a program or intervention had the intended causal effect on program participants.
Control Group A baseline group that receives no treatment or a neutral treatment.
Created by: Jpratt714