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Epidemiology, Illness Incidence and Risk Factors

What is epidemiology? (1) It is the study of the distribution of states of health and of hte determinants of deviations from health in human populations.
Epidemiology (2) Study of occurence, distribution, and the cause of health and disease. It takes place within a given population and includes identification of risk factors.
What is the focus of epidemiology? The health of group to which the individual belongs (Population).
What are the purposes of epidemiology? Identify deviations from health. Gather data to prevent or control diseases. Maximize clinical interventions. Evaluate interventions.
Epidemiologists are itnerested in what? Health states of the population. Disease and death. Health related behaviors. Population.
What are some of the concerns? Population of the group (not interested in individual). Comparisons between groups. Not individuals. Asks 2 questions: (why does this group have this, but this group doesn't? How come?)
What is prevalence rate? The number of people with a disease at any time. Looks at the total number of cases in that group.
What is incidence rate? Deals with new cases over a specific time. Consider total at risk. e.g., New cases/unit of time over total at risk.
What is mortality rate? Number of deaths from a certain cause over total population.
What is age-specific morality rate? Number of people dying within a defined age over total number of people in that age group.
What are risk factors? Any variable, situation, or habit that increases the vulnerability of hte group. (illness or unhealthy state)
What are some kinds of risk factors? Genetic and physiological. Age. Environment. Lifestyle.
What are some physiological examples of risk factors? Obesity, diabetes, hypertension.
What are some genetic examples of risk factors? Hemoglobins (increase risk for infection).
What are some environmental risk factors? Toxins, infectious organisms, radiation, stressful events, divorce.
What are some lifestyle risk factors? Smoking. Drinking alcohol.
What are some epidemiological-based intervention strategies? Educate. Regulate. Services. Identify risk factors. Teach. Look at levels of prevention.
Created by: LeidiSwts