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Biology

Study for Biology exam!

TermDefinition
Hypothesis Educated prediction about the outcome of a scientific experiment; an 'If...,then..."
Carbon Cycle The process by which carbon in the atmosphere goes into living things and is eventually returned to the atmosphere. It can be disrupted by clear-cutting forests, burning fossil fuels, etc.
Fossil Fuels Things like oil, coal, and natural gas. Such fuels are created by a dead creature being buried and undergoing one of three transformations into a fuel.
Nitrogen Cycle Process by which nitrogen gas in the atmosphere goes into living things and is eventually returned to the atmosphere. It can be disrupted by overuse of fertilizer.
Ecological Succession One community following another (ex. new trees growing after a forest fire)
First species to arrive in an area Lichens attaching to the bare rock and slowly breaking it apart for plant roots
Climax Community End result of succession
Herbivore Trophic level 1, only eats producers
Carnivore Trophic levels 2-3, eats herbivores & other carnivores
Omnivore Eats both plants and animals
Decomposer Eats dead things
Mutualism A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit.
Parasitism A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
Commensalism A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
Competition Two or more organisms competing for resources
Predation One organism killing and eating the other.
Energy's movement Nonstop flow
Matter's movement Cycling
Food web Several food chains linked together showing more in-depth views of the roles of each organism
Food chain A basic diagram of organisms and their roles in the environment (A eats B eats C eats D)
Energy pyramid A diagram displaying the amount of energy available to each trophic level. Each level has 10% less energy available to it than the level below it
pH scale 0-6: Acid 7: Neutral 8-14: Base
Organic molecules molecules related to the creation or processes of organisms
Monomer A single repeating part of a bigger molecule
Carbohydrate An organic molecule consisting of several monosaccharides, used to store short-term energy
Protein An organic molecule consisting of several amino acids, used to provide structure
Nucleic Acids An organic molecule composed of several nucleotides, used to store genetic information
Genetic Information Information on how to make proteins
Lipids An organic molecule composed of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol, used to store long-term energy
Four Functions of Water Cohesion(Water sticks to itself), Adhesion(Water sticks to other stuff), Density( Ice less dense than water), Solvent (Water dissolves stuff)
Flagella Long tail-like structure on a cell used for movement
Cilia Short hair-like structures on a cell used for movement
Pseudopodia Limb-like structures on a cell used for movement
Chloroplast Organelle in a plant cell that allows for photosynthesis
Mitochondrion Organelle in an animal cell that allows for respiration
Ribosome Organelle used in protein synthesis
Nucleus Organelle used to store DNA
Exocytosis Process by which a cell emits a large molecule
Prokaryote A cell with no nucleus, free-floating DNA
Eukaryote A cell with a nucleus to hold its DNA
Asexual reproduction Reproduction with a single parent
Binary Fission Method of asexual reproduction which creates two identical cells
Budding Method of asexual reproduction which creates smaller cells from the parent
Chromosome Bundle of DNA, two twisted strands connected by a centromere
Lysosome An animal organelle used to assist with digestion
Central Vacuole A plant organelle used to hold water
Cell Walls Plant cell structure, stiff barrier made of cellulose
Hypertonic A solution with more solute relative to another
Hypotonic A solution with less solute relative to another
Photosynthesis Process by which plant cells create food from carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
Chemosynthesis Process by which certain unicellular organisms derive energy from inorganic compounds
Aerobic Respiration Process by which a cell breaks down glucose using oxygen
Anaerobic respiration Process by which a cell breaks down glucose without oxygen, generates byproducts
Enzyme A class of protein used in causing or affecting the speed of certain chemical reactions in the body
Things That Affect Enzymes Heat, pH
Nucleotide A monomer of a nucleic acid, made of a phosphate, sugar, and a base
Protein Synthesis The two-step process of creating proteins
Transcription First step in protein synthesis; one gene is made into mRNA
Translation Second step in protein synthesis, tRNA attaches to mRNA with certain amino acids to create a protein
Hydrogen Bonds Weak chemical bond, used to hold DNA together
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid used to store genetic information in an organism
mRNA A variety of RNA, used to send genetic info from the nucleus to the ribosome
tRNA A variety of RNA, attaches to amino acids and is used in making proteins
rRNA A variety of RNA, allows the ribosome to synthesize proteins
RNA Ribonucleic acid, has 3 varieties all used in protein synthesis
Replication The process of copying DNA, semiconservative
Nucleic Bases (DNA) Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
Nucleic Bases (RNA) Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine
Codon A 3-base length of mRNA coding for one amino acid
Mutation A change in DNA
Created by: P3r50n