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MMBio DNA Ch 2


Genetics science of heredity and variation
gamete cells sex cells
P generation parents used in a cross
F1 generation kids of parent generation
F2 generation grandkids of parent generation, kids of F1
Purebred homozygous for a certain trait
Hybrid kids with parents of different genotypes
Gene section of DNA encoding a protein or functional RNA
Allele variant of the gene encoding trait
diploid two copies of each gene
haploid one allele of each gene
law of segregation equal and independent segregation of alleles occurs during formation of gametes (meiosis)
law of independent assortment different genes assort into gametes independent of one another (one gene does not affect where another goes, random alignment on metaphase plate)
incomplete dominance intermediate between dominant and recessive traits (not red or white but pink)
codominance have both traits present (blood type AB)
linked genes alleles for two different genes assort together (genes on one chromosome)
cytology study of cells
cytogenetics study of chromosomes and cells and their roles in heredity
Phenotype trait expressed physically
Genotype alleles contained in an organism (the code)
dominant allele always expressed when present
recessive allele only expressed when the genotype is homozygous recessive
heterozygous two different alleles for one gene
homozygous two identical alleles per gene
unlinked genes genes on different chromosomes
crossing over reciprocal change of genes between chromosomes that happens in prophase I of meiosis
meiotic recombination same as crossing over, can be used to map genes
DNase, RNase, protease what they used to figure out what was genetic material with bacteriophages and such
enzyme protein catalyst that facilitates the different catabolic and anabolic reactions
mutation changes in DNA sequence, alters proteins which causes a change in phenotype or a disease, increases genetic variability
genetic disease a disease that is connected to a problem in the DNA
Autosomal vs. X-linked disease x linked disease is a problem on an x sex chromosome, while an autosomal is based on a problem in a autosomal chromosome
Created by: ksheehy96