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Science

Properties of H2O, Compisiton of the Ocean

QuestionAnswer
List 5 ways in which water is a unique compound. 1. Water exists as a solid, liquid and gas. 2. Water has a high specific heat. 3. Water forms droplets when it spills. 4. Substances can dissolve in water. 5. Ice floats in water, Ice is less dense than water.
Draw a water molecule. Know that water is made of on oxygen atom(negative) and 2 hydrogen atoms. The oxygen is big and the hydrogen is small.
True/False, The particles of liquid water are closer together than the particles of the same volume of frozen water. True.
Explain how Sodium Chloride (Salt) Dissolves in water. Positively charged sodium atoms (Na+) are attracted to the negatively charged oxygen atoms of water. Negatively charged chlorine atoms (Cl'') are attracted to the positively charged hydrogen atoms. Sodium Chlorine breaks apart, or dissolve.
What is the definition of Cohesion? The attraction of molecules that are alike.
What is the definition of Adhesion? The attraction of molecules that are not alike.
Be able to draw Cohesion and Adhesion. This can be referenced from your science journal.
True/False, The density of ice is lower than the density of the the same volume of liquid water? True.
True/False, density of freshwater is lowest at 4 degrees Celsius? False, the density of freshwater is highest at 4 degrees Celsius?
Describe Waters Polarity. (Continued on the next card.) A condition in which opposite ends of a molecule have slightly opposite charges, but the overall charge of the molecule is neutral. The slightly negative oxygen atom of one molecule attracts slightly positive hydrogen atoms of other water molecules.
Describe Waters Polarity This produces and attractive force between water molecules.
Cause and Effect: Cause, In winter the surface water of a pond cools to 0 degrees Celsius what is the effect? Surface water freezes and floats on the top of the pond. The ice on the top insulates the water below. Aquatic organisms can survive the cold months of winter. Dense water is is 4 degrees Celsius below the ice.
Explain what happens to a frog's environment during a northern winter. (Continued on the next card.) In winter the surrounding air cools the surface of the water. When the temperature of the water reach 4 degrees Celsius, it sinks and is replaced by warm water which rises to the top and cools. Surface water cools to 0 degrees Celsius and freezes.
Explain what happens to a frog's environment during a northern winter. Ice floats on less dense liquid water. Provides and insulator for life below.
In diagram A, why is the surface water sinking and the water on the bottom rising? (Found on Page 60 of your journal.) The water at the surface is at it's highest density so it would sink. While the water at the bottom is less dense than 4 degrees so it will rise.
Using diagram A and diagram B, how can you tell that water has the highest density? (Found on Page 60 of your journal.) In diagram A, the water at the surface is at 4 degrees Celsius, which is the waters maximum density, sinks to the bottom, and the water at the bottom greater than 4 degrees Celsius rises. In diagram B the water at the surface is less than 4 degrees Celsiu
What states of matter can water exist in nature on Earth? Solid, Liquid and gas.
What would happen if you placed drops of water on a counter. The water would evaporate.
What causes the water droplets to form? Cohesion, water becomes attracted to each other. Water is a polar molecule it has -/+ charges and it will attract water.
What happens when you add sugar to water. The polar molecules of the water attract the negative and positive areas of sugar causing the sugar to dissolve in water.
What causes water's unique properties? The polarity or how the molecules form/are put together.
Why does ice float in water? Ice is less dense then water so ice would float.
Be able to draw an water molecule and label the charges hydrogen (+) and oxygen (-) This can be referenced from your science journal.
What is polarity? Polarity is when two opposite charges, one charge being slightly positive and one charge being slightly negative collide.
Draw a picture of three water molecules show the bonds between them. (Found on page 60 of your journal.)
Why do water molecules attract each other. Water is a polar molecule with hydrogen carrying a very slight positive charge and oxygen carrying a very slight negative charge. This results in intermolecular attraction and hydrogen bonding.
Draw a picture that shows salt (NaCl) dissolved in water. (Found on page 60 of your journal.)
Why is water sometimes called the universal solvent? Because many substances can dissolve in water.
What is Salinity? Amount of salt mixed in water.
What is Osmosis? Water flowing from an area of high to low concentration.
What is Evaporation? Water escaping into the air as water vapor.
How does salt effect the water's temperature? The more salt there is in the water the more dense the water is and temperature will decrease. The less salt there is in the water, the less dense the water is and temperature will increase.
Identify five of the Earth's oceans. 1. Pacific ocean 2. Atlantic ocean 3. Indian ocean 4. Southern Ocean 5. Artic Ocean
Explain how water in Earth's oceans became salty. As rain washed over rocks, it dissolved minerals than formed salts. Rivers and streams carry substances to the ocean basin to make oceans salty.
Point out two sources of water for Earth's oceans. 1. Melted ice from comets/ asteroids 2. Water vapor expelled by volcanoes that condensed and precipitated.
Differentiate seawater and Brackish water. Seawater is water from sea or ocean and has an average salinity of 35 ppt(part per thousand) Brackish water is freshwater mixed with sea water and the salinity is between 1ppt - 17ppt.
Describe the Continental Margins Extend from shoreline to great ocean. 3 regions a. continental shelf b. continental slope c. continental rise
Describe the abyssal plains. Large flat area of the sea floor that extend across the deepest part of the ocean basin.
Describe the Mid-ocean ridges. Places on the sea-floor where tectonic plates pull apart.
Describe the Ocean Trenches. The deepest part of the ocean.
Describe the resources from the seafloor. Energy resources: oil natural gas, methane hydrates. Minerals: gold, zinc, magnesium noodles.
List 4 criteria scientists use when classifying ocean zones. 1. Sunlight 2. Temperature 3. Salinity 4. Density
Describe the Surface Zone. The sunlit, area of shallow sea water. This zone receives the greatest amount of sunlight. The top layer is also where organisms Preform photosynthesis.
Describe the Middle Zone. By the time the sun's wave lengths reaches the middle layer the wave length will have been absorbed. - Receives blue green light. also called twilight zone.
Describe the deep zone. No light, squids and other creatures would have to make their own light-biolumenene -no plants grow in the deep zone.
Analyze water changes with depth. (Found in Page 65 of your journal.)
Explain why river water can be salty. As river water pours into the ocean the rise and fall mix ocean water with salt water - making the water become brakish.
Putting salt on an ice cube causes it to melt, why? Water becomes ice at 32 degrees Fahrenheit, which is called the freezing point of water. Adding salt to ice lowers the freezing point. Preventing formation of ice.
Will adding salt to the roads work at any temperature. No it will not work at -17.8 degrees Fahrenheit but even at higher temperatures it would be considered a waste of salt.
How does the ice make it possible for organisms to live in the lake in the winter? The layer of ice at the surface provides insulation and prevents the rest of the water from freezing.
In diagram C why does Ice stay on the surface of the lake? (Found On Page 60 in your journal.) Ice is less dense than water.
Define Ocean Current A large volume of water flowing in a certain direction.
Describe Surface Currents Prevailing winds influence the formation and direction of surface currents. Surface Currents move water horizontally and reach depths of 400 meters or more.
Define Gyre. A circular system of currents.
Identify 5 major gyres. 1.North Pacific Gyre 2. South Pacific Gyre 3.North Atlantic Gyre 4. South Atlantic Gyre 5. Indian Ocean Gyre
Identify the effect of the Coriolis effect on the movement of surface currents. Effect: In the southern hemisphere, currents curve to the right, in a clockwise direction. In the northern hemisphere, currents curve to the left, in a counterclockwise direction.
Explain why upwelling occurs. Identify one benefit of the process. Upwelling occurs when wind blows across the oceans surface and pushes water away from an area then cold, dense water would replace it. The benefit is cold, nutrient rich water from the ocean to the oceans surface.
Describe density currents and what they are caused by. Density Currents are a vertical current that carry water from the surface to the deeper parts of the ocean and are caused by changes in density. (Or changes in temperature and salinity.)
Summarize characteristics about the major types of ocean currents. (Found of page 69 of your journal.)
Indicate water temperatures in the northern hemisphere gyre. (Found on page 69 of your journal.)
Summarize how surface currents affect weather and climate. Surface currents has warm water currents and cold water currents in its circular flow. these two types of surface currents affect weather and climate. Region near warm water current are often warmer and wetter than regions near cold water currents.
Distinguish the cause of temperature differences along the coasts of the United states (South eastern, Part 1) Cause: The gulf stream transfers lots of thermal energy and moisture to the surrounding air. Effect: Summer evenings are warm and humid, and rain is common.
Distinguish the cause of temperature differences along the coasts of the United states. (South Western united states, Part 2) Cause the California current releases less thermal energy and moisture to the air. Effect Summer evenings are cooler and drier in Florida.
How do the great ocean currents affect weather and climate. The great ocean conveyor belt is a name for a large system of ocean currents that affect weather and climate by tranfering thermal energy and moisture to the surrounding air.
Created by: andyakarri