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Digestion

Biology

TermDefinition
Nutrients Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
Mechanical Digestion The process of mashing and grinding food
Chemical Digestion The process of suing enzymes to break down food
Hydrolysis A chemical reaction where something reacts with water and is changed into a new substance
Ingestion First stage of digestion...consume food
Digestion The breakdown of food into smaller particles called nutrients that can enter cells
Absorption Third stage of digestion...nutrients diffuse into blood and cells
Egestion Fourth stage of digestion...elimination of solid wastes
Mouth This is where digestion starts...site of mechanical digestion
Salivary Amylase Enzymes present in the mouth that break down starches into disaccharides
Pharynx Back of the throat
Epiglottis This flap of tissue that closes to prevent food from passing into the trachea
Esophagous Site of peristalsis
Peristalsis Strong muscular contractions that push food along
Stomach Site of both chemical and mechanical digestion
Rugae Wrinkled interior of the stomach
Hydrochloric Acid I am present in the stomach to aid in the chemical digestion process
Sphincters "Trap doors" that regulate the passage of food into and out of the stomach
Acid reflux "Indigestion", "heartburn"
Pepsin Digestive enzyme in the stomach that catalyzes the breakdown of proteins to peptides
Ulcer Disorder in which open sores line the walls of the stomach
Chyme Liquid leaving the stomach
Liver I make bile and act as an emulsifier to break down fat into tiny droplets
Bile Fluid secreted by the live that aids in digestion
Gall Bladder I store bile
Insulin I lower blood sugar levels
Glucagen I raise blood sugar levels
Sodium Bicarbonate I am made in the pancreas and neutralize chyme entering the small intestines
Pancreatic Amylase I am an enzyme found in the pancreas
Trypsin Enzyme produced in the pancreas and aids digestion in the small intestines...hydrolyzes proteins to smaller polypeptides
Lipase Enzyme produced in the pancreas and aids digestion in the small intestines...hydrolyzes fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Small Intestines Final site of chemical digestion
Villi Tiny finger-like projections that line the small intestines...site of nutrient absorption
Maltase, Sucrase, Lactase Enzymes found in the intestines which break down disaccharides into monosaccharides
Peptidase Any enzyme that acts a s a catalyst in the splitting of a peptide into an amino acid
Large Intestines (colon) I remove water from undigested food to form feces
Rectum Stores feces
Anus Exit for feces
Created by: gmottola