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Brain&Behavior ch.10

Biological Rhthyms

TermDefinition
The _________ Houses an Endogenous Circadian Clock Hypothalamus
________ rhythms are regular fluctuations in a living process Biological
Biological rhythms include which three rhythms? circadian, ultracadian, and infradian
Circadian rhythms have a rhythm of about _#_ hours 24
Ultradian rhythms repeat more than once a day and include things like... bouts of activity, feeding,and hormone release
Infradian rhythms repeat less than once a day and include things like... body weight and reproductive cycles
Biological rhythms are regular _________ in a living process fluctuations
________s are active during the light ________s are active during the dark Diurnal, Nocturnal
A ______ shift is the shift in activity in response to a synchronizing stimulus, such as light or food phase
_________ is the process of shifting the rhythm Entrainment
The cue that an animal uses to synchronize with the environment is called a _______ or “time-giver” zeitgeber
The biological clock is located in the _____________ ________—above the optic chiasm in the hypothalamus suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
SCN-lesioned animals showed what? disrupted circadian rhythms
Isolated SCN cells maintain electrical activity that is what? synchronized to the previous light cycle
__________ studies proved that the SCN produces a circadian rhythm Transplant
Hamsters with SCN lesions received a SCN tissue transplant from hamsters with a very short period, ~20 hours. What was the result? Circadian rhythms were restored but matched the shorter period of the donor
Circadian rhythms entrain to light-dark cycles using different pathways, some outside of the eye ;)
The pineal gland in amphibians and birds is sensitive to _____ light
________ is secreted from the pineal gland to inform the brain about light Melatonin
In mammals, light information goes from the eye to the SCN via the ___________ pathway retinohypothalamic
retinohypothalamic pathway: Some retinal ________ cells project to the SCN ganglion
retinohypothalamic pathway: Most of the retinal ganglion cells contain ________, a special photopigment, that makes them sensitive to light melanopsin
SCN cells in mammals make two proteins: Clock & Cycle
Clock and Cycle proteins bind together to form a what? dimer
The Clock/Cycle dimer binds to DNA and promotes the transcription of 2 genes: Period (per) and Cryptochrome (cry) [Per and Cry proteins bind to each other and to protein Tau]
Molecular clock: The Per/Cry/Tau protein complex enters the nucleus and ______ the transcription of per and cry inhibits
Molecular clock: What does this inhibition cause? No new proteins are made until the first set degrades, The cycle repeats ~every 24 hours
mutations of _____ gene in Drosophila helped understand circadian clock in mammals period
Gene ________ show how important the clock is to behavior in constant conditions: mutations
In tau mutations the period is ______ than normal shorter
Double Clock mutants are severely _________ arrhythmic
Sleep is synchronized to _______ events, including light and dark external
In the absence of cues, humans have a freerunning period of approximately _#_ hours 25
Electrical brain ________can be used to classify levels of arousal and states of sleep potentials
Electroencephalogram (EEG): continuous scalp recording; summed Post-Synaptic Potentials (____ and ____) of synchronously firing pyramidal cells in neocortex IPSP and EPSP
There are Two distinct classes of sleep: Slow-wave sleep (SWS) and Rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM)
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) can be divided into _#_ stages and is characterized by slow-wave EEG activity 4
Rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM) is characterized by small ________, fast-EEG waves, no postural tension, and rapid eye movements amplitude
The pattern of activity in an awake person contains many __________ frequencies:
These frequencies are dominated by waves of ____ frequency and ___ amplitude (15 to 20 Hz) • Known as beta activity or desynchronized EEG fast, low
Alpha rhythm occurs in _________, a regular oscillation of 8 to 12 Hz relaxation
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: Stage 1 sleep shows events of ________ frequency and _______ amplitude, as well as vertex spikes, or sharp waves irregular, smaller
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: Stage 1 sleep causes what physical things to happen? (3) Heart rate slows, muscle tension reduces, eyes move about
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: how long does Stage 1 sleep last? Lasts several minutes
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: Stage 2 sleep is Defined by waves of 12 to 14 Hz that occur in bursts, called _____ _________ sleep spindles
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: in Stage 2 sleep, K-complexes appear which are what? —sharp negative EEG potentials
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: Early stage 3 sleep Continues _____ _________ as in stage 2 sleep spindles
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: Early stage 3 sleep is Defined by the appearance of _____-amplitude, very slow waves called _____ waves large, delta
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: Early stage 3 sleep: how often do Delta waves occur? about once per second
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: in Late stage 3 sleep Delta waves are present about ____ the time half
Four stages of slow-wave sleep: ___ sleep follows SWS REM
REM sleep: Active EEG with _____-amplitude, _____-frequency waves, like an awake person small, high
REM sleep: Muscles are relaxed—called _______ sleep paradoxical
Vivid dreams occur during REM sleep, characterized by: Visual imagery and Sense that the dreamer is “there”
_________ are frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper from REM sleep Nightmares
______ _______ are sudden arousals from stage 3 SWS, marked by fear and autonomic activity Night terrors
Nearly all mammals display both REM and SWS. Birds also display both REM and SWS sleep. Dolphins don’t show REM sleep however, because why? relaxed muscles are incompatible surface breathing
In dolphins and birds, only one brain hemisphere enters SWS at a time; the other remains _______ awake
Typical young adult sleep 7–8 hours/night: __-__% in stage 2; __% in REM 45–50, 20
Typical young adult sleep 7–8 hours/night: Cycles last __-___minutes 90–110
Typical young adult sleep 7–8 hours/night: In Earlier cycles, there's more ___ ; later cycles more ___ stage 3 SWS, REM
Infant sleep is characterized by: (2) Shorter sleep cycles and More REM sleep – 50%, which may provide essential stimulation to the developing nervous system
As we age, what happens to our sleep and wake times? sleep time declines and wake time increases
The biggest loss is time spent in stage _#_: – By 60, only half as much time is spent as at age 20 – By 90, it has disappeared 3
sleep deprivation: Effects can vary with age and other factors. But what are three common effects? Increased irritability, Difficulty in concentrating, and Episodes of disorientation
Randy Gardner’s HS science fair project - How long could he go without sleep? He managed _#_ consecutive days with no signs of insanity 11
______ _________ is the process of sleeping more than normally, after a period of deprivation Sleep recovery
Sleep recovery: Night 1 stage 3 sleep is increased, but stage 2 is decreased
Sleep recovery: Night 2 most recovery of REM sleep, which is more intense than normal with more rapid eye movements
Sleep deprivation can be fatal: Total sleep deprivation compromises the ________ ________ and leads to death immune system
The disease _____ ________ insomnia is inherited – in midlife people stop sleeping and die 7–24 months after onset of the insomnia fatal familial
Degeneration of ______ ______ was found in patient with fatal familial insomnia; frontal cortex
The bodies need sleep for what 4 things? Energy conservation, Niche adaptation, Body restoration, and Memory consolidation
Sleep may aid memory consolidation: Sleep during the interval between learning and recall may reduce what? interfering stimuli
Sleep may aid memory consolidation: Memory typically _____ and sleep may slow this down decays
Sleep may aid memory consolidation: Or sleep, especially ___, may actively contribute through processes that consolidate the learned material REM
Sleep is an active state mediated by what 4 interacting neural systems? forebrain, brainstem, pontine, and hypothalamic systems
A forebrain system—displays ____ SWS
A brainstem system—activates the _______ forebrain
A pontine system—triggers ____ _______ REM sleep
A hypothalamic system—does what? affects the other three systems
_________ experiments showed that different sleep systems originate in different parts of the brain Transection
The isolated brain is made by an incision between the ________ and the _______ ______ medulla and the spinal cord
Animals with this incision showed signs of sleep and wakefulness, proving what? that the networks reside in the brain
An isolated forebrain is made by an incision in the ________ midbrain
The electrical activity in the forebrain showed constant SWS, but not REM—thus, the forebrain alone can generate ____ SWS
The constant SWS activity in the forebrain is generated by the ______ _______, a ventral region basal forebrain
Neurons in this region become active at sleep onset and release _____ GABA
GABA activates receptors in the nearby ___________ nucleus tuberomamillary
GABA receptors are also stimulated by general _________ to produce slow waves resembling SWS anesthetics
What is able to activate the cortex? The reticular formation .
Electrical stimulation of this area will _____ __ sleeping animals wake up
Lesions of this area promote ______ sleep
The forebrain and reticular formation seem to guide the brain between ___ and ___________ SWS and wakefulness
An area of the pons, near the locus coeruleus, is responsible for what kind of sleep? REM sleep (Some neurons in this region are only active during REM sleep )
this area of the pons inhibit motoneurons to keep them from firing, which disables what during REM? disabling the motor system during REM sleep
The study of _________ revealed the hypothalamic sleep center. narcolepsy
Narcolepsy sufferers have frequent what? sleep attacks and excessive daytime sleepiness
Narcolepsy sufferers do not go through ___ before REM sleep SWS
Narcolepsy sufferers may show _________—a sudden loss of muscle tone, leading to collapse cataplexy
Narcoleptic dogs have a mutant gene for a _______ receptor hypocretin
Hypocretin normally prevents what? the transition from wakefulness directly into REM sleep
Interfering with hypocretin signaling leads to ________ narcolepsy
Hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus project to other sleep system centers: (3) the basal forebrain, the reticular formation, and the locus coeruleus
Axons also go to the tuberomamillary nucleus, whose inhibition induces what? SWS
The ___________ seems to contain a hypocretin sleep that controls wakefulness, SWS sleep, or REM sleep hypothalamus
______ _________ is the brief inability to move just before falling asleep, or just after waking up Sleep paralysis
sleep paralysis may be caused by the _______ _______ continuing to signal for muscle relaxation, even when awake pontine center
Sleep disorders in children: Night terrors and sleep enuresis (bed-wetting) are associated with what kind of sleep? SWS
Sleep disorders in children: Somnambulism (sleepwalking) occurs during stage _#_ SWS, and may persist into adulthood 3
REM behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by what? organized behavior from an asleep person (fighting an imaginary foe for example)
RBD usually begins after age 50 and may be followed by beginning symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. This suggests what? damage in the brain motor systems
____-_____ insomnia is a difficulty in falling asleep, and can be caused by situational factors, such as shift work or jet lag Sleep-onset insomnia
_____-________ insomnia is a difficulty in staying asleep and may be caused by drugs or neurological factors Sleep-maintenance insomnia
In ______ _______, breathing may stop or slow down when muscles in the chest and diaphragm relax too much or respiratory neurons in the brain stem don’t signal properly sleep apnea
Sleep state misperception occurs when what? people report insomnia even when they were asleep
________ _______ _______ __________ is sleep apnea resulting from immature respiratory pacemaker systems or arousal mechanisms Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
what can prevent the infant from suffocation due to apnea? Putting babies to sleep on their backs
Most sleeping pills bind to ____ receptors throughout the brain GABA
Continued use of sleeping pills can cause what 3 things? • Makes them ineffective • Produces marked changes in sleep patterns that persist even when not taking the drug • Can lead to drowsiness and memory gaps
Created by: cmccartney2