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Darwin & Evolution

Ch. 14 Advanced Biology Review

QuestionAnswer
Naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle in 1831... Charles Darwin
Georges Cuvier founded the study of fossils, or the science of ... Paleontology
Proposed the idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics... Lamarck
Theory that explained the changes viewed in fossils as small changes caused by natural processes that occur at a uniform rate... Uniformitarianism
Any characteristic that makes and organism more suited to its environment.... Adaptation
Study of the distribution of life-forms on earth... Biogeography
Wrote the book "Principles of Geology" which Darwin borrowed from in order to form his ideas about natural selection... Charles Lyell
Show evidence that change, or evolution, has occurred over time as they provide "links" between groups... Transitional species
All organisms have the same basic ___, including DNA, ATP and many identical or nearly identical enzymes... Biological molecules
Anatomical features that are fully developed in one group of organisms but reduced/nonfunctional in another, similar group... Vestigial structures
Fossils trapped in rock strata are the ___ that we use to learn about the history of life... Fossil record
This theory states that all living things have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular way of life/environment... Evolution
The human knee bone and spine were derived from ancestral structures that supported four-legged animals, is a statement which provides ___ evidence of evolution Anatomical
The amino acid sequence of human hemoglobin is more similar to that of rhesus monkeys than to that of mice, is a statement which provides ___ evidence of evolution. Biochemical
Marsupials are only plentiful in Australia, is a statement which provides ___ evidence of evolution Biogeographical
The flipper of a dolphin and the fin of a tuna are an example of what type of structure? Homologous
When the degree of similarity in DNA base sequences of genes is examined and found to be high, it leads scientists to assume... Common descent
The wings of a dragon fly and those of a peregrine falcon are an example of what type of structure? Analogous
The ___ show that reptiles and mammals share an amniote ancestry... Synapsids
Transition between mesonychids and today's mammals; probably walked on land and swam by flexing its backbone and paddling with it's hind limbs... Ambulocetus
The origin of new structures, found by comparing fossil evidence of organisms to similar living organisms, can be most likely explained by ___ of the preexisting structures... Modification
Efficient seed dispersal would be favored in (natural/artificial) selection... Natural
Natural selection is the only process that results in ___ Adaptation to the environment
___ are not able to explain multiple extinctions, replacement of one group of organisms bu another, or the successive changes that link groups or organisms in the fossil record... Catastrophists
A hypothesis, in science, is supported by a great deal of ___ Evidence
How long did the voyage of the Beagle last? Five years
Due to ___, its often possible to see the number of strata, layers of rock or sedimentary material that contain(s) fossils... Erosion
Today, there are ___ species of finches on the Galapagos with beaks adapted to a particular way of life, as described my Darwin... thirteen
Breeding organisms for desired characteristics... Artificial selection
Formation of new species... Speciation
In all environments, for all species, there is a struggle to __ and reproduce each generation... Survive
Make adaptations to the environment possible and are passed on to future generations... Variations
Process resulting in the evolution of organisms... Natural selection
Reproductive success of an individual relative to other members of the population... Fitness
Scientist who also studied the geographical distribution of life (in indonesia) and eventually conceived the idea of "survival of the fittest." Wallace
Stressed the reproductive potential of human beings; stated death and famine are inevitable... Malthus
After studying fossil evidence, Darwin concluded that the Glyptodont is related to present-day... Armadillos
Older rock layers are situated at the bottom of a selection of rock strata and the newer layers are on the top... Law of superposition
The characteristics of the Patagonian hair resemble those of the ___, which does not occur naturally in SA... European rabbit
One of the earliest attempts to explain the biogeographical distribution of species... Wallace line
___ muscles that surround each hair follicle can be viewed as vestigial structures; in other animals they are a useful defense mechanism but not so much in humans... Piloerector
___ is a molecule used in the electron transport chain of all many organisms and is of particular interest in molecular evidence of evolution; the sequence in a human differes from that in a monkey bu only 1 amino acid... Cytochrome c
Created by: SavannahElkins