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Final 12/2014 LAHS

Final Exam Review

What is the purpose of science? investigate and understand the natural world
define hypothesis suggest how or why something happens
controlled experiment set up in duplicate; tests only one variable
define homeostasis maintain internal balance
list the levels of organization of living things from small to large cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
define polar when electrons are concentrated on one side of a molecule, creating a slightly more negative charge
define solution solute particles are dissolved in solvent which is the bulk of the solution
What is the best solvent? water
What is an acid? substance with excess hydrogen atoms
What is the pH of an acid less than 7 on the pH scale (a base is more than 7 and neutral equals 7)
What are the 4 organic compounds in animals? protein, lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid (DNA, RNA)
What are the monomers or subunits of a protein? amino acids
What are the monomers or subunits of a carbohydrate? monosaccharides and polysaccharides
What are the monomers or subunits of a nucleic acid? nucleotides
What are the monomers or subunits of a lipid? fatty acid and glycerol
define a chemical reaction bonds are broken, atoms are rearranged, new bonds form
hydrogen + oxygen --> water What are the products? What are the reactants? product=water reactants=hydrogen and oxygen
define optimum best
At what three conditions do enzymes work best? certain pH, temperature, ion conditions
Why are enzymes only needed in small amounts? Because the are not used up in a chemical reaction, therefore they can be reused.
What type of an organic compound are enzymes? proteins
What is it about the shape of an enzyme molecule that allows it to do its job? enzymes have a specific shape-lock and key model
What is a catalyst? a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction (enzymes are catalysts)
define denaturation at high temperature, enzymes unravel and can no longer do their job
Where are ribosomes found? freefloating in the cytoplasm or on endoplasmic reticulum making it rough ER
describe the protein structure proteins are compsed of 20 different amino acids arranged in an infinite number sequences to make thousands of different proteins
describe the structure of the cell membrane semipermeable, 2 layers of lipids with proteins and carbohydrate tails; fluid mosaic; found in both plant and animal cells
what the function of the cell membrane regulates what enters/leaves the cell; acts as a barrier
describe the structure of the cell wall an added layer on the outside of the cell membrane; found in plants only
what is the function of the cell wall protection and support
Where are proteins modified, processed and packaged? Golgi
What is the function of cholorphyll? in plants only-captures sunlight energy and changes it to glucose chemical energy
Where is chlorophyll found? in the chloroplasts of green plants
What chemical in a cell is responsible for storing and releasing energy? ATP
define cell respiration oxygen plus glucose form carbon dioxide and ATP as energy is released from food
Where in the cell does cell respiration occur? mitochondria
cells that need a lot of energy will have a lot of these organelles mitochondria
define diffusion the movement of substances/gases across a cell membrane
viruses and prokaryotes(bacteria) are similar because they both have DNA and RNA
Created by: Ferris
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