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MIP 300 Unit 1

3 domains bacteria, archaea, eukarya
5 kingdoms monera, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
magnification= objective x eyepiece
best light microscope resolving power 0.2 um
4 types of light microscopes bright-field, dark-field, phase-contrast, fluorescence
phase contrast microscopy converts slight differences in refractive indexes into easily detected variations in light intensity
basic dyes bind to negatively charged structures
acidic dyes bind to positively charged structures
acid fast + pink
acid fast - blue
phospholipid found in bacteria phosphotidylethanolamine
what makes up archaea membrane? much stronger phospholipid
mycoplasmas lack a cell membrane
mycobacterium mycolic acid layer
protein that transports larger substances thru outer membrane (gram negative) permeases
protein that transports smaller substances thru outer membrane (gram negative) porins
2 carbohydrates that make up cell wall/what kind of linkage NAG & NAM; beta glycosidic bond
difference b/w gram - and gram + cell wall (carbohydrates) gram + has tetrapeptide
what can block penicillin? outer membranes
when does penicillin work? when the cell is dividing
lysozyme enzyme found in salvia, tears, sweat that destroys structural integrity of peptidoglycan molecule
penicillin fits into enzyme that makes cell walls (inhibits it)
penicillin structure beta lactam ring
bacteria that lack a cell wall mycoplasma
how are mycoplasma membranes strengthened? sterols in PM
mycoplasma are not affected by lysozyme and penicillin
archaea often have an s-layer
what can be altered to change gram negative cell wall thickness? # of sheets of NAG and NAM only
what can be altered to change gram + cell wall thickness? (3) number of NAG and NAM sheets, type of inter bridge, number of AAs in inter bridge
bacteria microtubules tubulin homolog
bacteria microfilaments actin homolog
3 functions of cytoskeleton cell division, protein localization, shape
inclusion bodies have a ____ sometimes enclosed by a SINGLE layer membrane (protein, phospholipids); many used for storage
organic inclusion bodies (4) gas vacuole, carboxysome, cyanophycin, glycogen
glycogen granules (inclusion body) have PHB (can be used as biodegradable plastic)
carboxysomes (inclusion body) store CO2 and fix carbon
cyanophycin (inclusion body) long chains if AAs (arg and asp) for nitrogen storage
gas vacuoles (inclusion body) help bacteria that live in H2O move around
inorganic inclusion bodies (2) metachromatic granules, magnetasomes
megachromatic granules (inclusion body) store phosphate for ATP production
magnetasomes (inclusion body) contain Fe to align w/ poles
prokaryotic ribosomes 70S (30S and 50S)
eukaryotic ribosomes 80S (40S and 60S)
similar protein to histones found in prokaryotes condensin
some archaea have what eukaryotic protein? histones
4 types of things that plasmids can transfer antibiotic resistance, genes for metabolic processes, anti-bacterial genes, toxins
endospores are heat resistant b/c of calcium-dipicolinic acid
germination (definition) turning back into a cell from an endospore
3 steps of germination activation, germination, outgrowth
4 functions of components external to cell wall (4) horizontal gene transfer, movement, attachment, protection
capsule layer of polysaccharides that resists endocytosis (complement doesn't bind as well)
slime layer less organized and easier to removed than capsule
glycocalyx "sugar shell" that encompasses both the capsule and slime layer
biofilms collection of bacteria in some kind of sugar mesh (plaque)-> inside is much more antibiotic resistant
s-layer protein that gives cell shape, protects it, and aids in virulence
diagnosis of TB PPD + chest x-ray (check for granulomas)
__ of the world's population is infected w/ TB 1/3 (90% latent)
can pili and fimbriae be visualized under a light microscope? no
type IV fimbriae twitch for motility
3 parts of flagella filament, hook, and basal body
axial filament found only in spirochetes; internal flagella that flexes, bends, and spins
chemoreceptors are located where? in PM or periplasmic space of gram -
binary fission steps (5) gets bigger, chromosome replicated, contents divided, septum, division
4 phases of growth lag (getting ready to divide), exponential/log (dividing), stationary (#dying=#dividing), death (dying exponentially)
psychrophiles 0-20C
facultative psychrophiles 20-30C (Listeria monocytogenes)
mesophiles 15-45C (most human pathogens)
thermophiles 45-100C
stenothermal grow over a small range of temperatures
eurythermal grow over a wide range of temperatures
hypotonic pure water
isotonic water activity= 0.98 (human body)
hypertonic low water activity (salt lakes ~0.75)
osmotolerance microbes that can grow in low water activity (hypertonic)
halophiles microbes that REQUIRE a low water activity
optimum pH 1-5.5 acidophiles
optimum pH 5.5-8 neutrophiles
optimum pH 8.5-11.5 alkalophiles
barotolerant bacteria that CAN grow >1 atm
barophliic bacteria that prefer to grow >1 atm
bacteria that can live with or without O2 aerotolerant anaerobes
what protects microbes from radiation? pigmentation
sterilization no living microbes
disinfectant killing/inhibiting microbes from INANIMATE objects
sanitization reducing microbial #s to levels safe for public (not all gone)
antiseptics killing/inhibiting microbes from LIVING tissue
optimal concentration of alcohol sanitizers 60-70% (if more evaporates too fast)
2 common mistakes while taking antibiotics failure to follow directions and failure to finish
5 modes of killing ribosomes, cell wall, membranes, nucleic acids, metabolic pathways
5 ways bacteria evade antibiotics prevent entrance, efflux pumps, drug inactivation, target modification, alternate pathway
what step in sporulation is most likely inhibited by inhibiting NAG and NAM? formation of the cortex
you isolated cell w/ 70s ribosomes, dsDNA, and PPL bilayer.. could be what? bacteria, archaea, or eukarya
a mutation in the axial filament gene would render which type of bacteria immobile? spirochetes
what can produce exoezymes? both gram positive and gram negative bacteria
2 organelles that arose to the endosymbiont theory chloroplasts and mitochrondria
4 reasons why chloroplasts/mitochondria came from bacteria 70s ribosomes, circular DNA, size/shape like a bacterium, double membrane
therapeutic index amount that is toxic/amount that is therapeutic
Created by: melaniebeale