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Baroque Period

TermDefinition
Baroque Time period- 1600-1750
Aristrocatic patronage Noble people, paying money for music
Ecclesiastic patronage The chuch, paying money for music
Civic patronage Middle class, paying money for music
Theory of Affects Doctrine of the Affections. Using art to create emotion. Lead to opera
Prima Practica Stile Antico. Old way of harmony and music. Invented by Monteverdi. Style and practice of 16 century polyphony
Seconda Practice Stile Moderne. New way of harmony and music. Invented by Monteverdi. Style using chromaticism. Allowed rules to be broken for emotion,
Basso Contiuno Figured Bass. Symbols used to indicate the chords used, and changes to intervals ie slashes through numbers
Figured Bass Realization Performing of Basso Continuo. (incompleted music notation)
Concertato Combination of multiple instruments playing different parts ie.
Chromaticism Movement by halfsteps, used to portray emotion
Tonality System used to replace modal system. Music now thought about vertically instead of horizontally
Opera Developed by Florenine Camerata; believed Greek Tragedies were set to music. First opera house opened in Venice in 1637. Became sensation; diva/divo culture. Staged theatrical production consisting of arias, recitatives and instrumental pieces.
Libretto "little book" The actual text of the opera
Florentine Camerata Organization consisting of Giovanni Bardi, Girolamo Mei, Vincenzo Galilei. Started developing Greek Tragedy into opera.
Giovanni Bardi Host of the Florentine Camerata
Girolamo Mei Read Ancient Greek in the Florentine Camerata
Vincenzo Galilei Musician; interested in tuning system. Father of Galileo. Member of Florentine Camerata
Intermedi Musical interlude of a pastoral, allegorical or mythological subject. Performed before, between or after a spoken comedy or tragedy.
Orfeo The first opera. Enchanted with his music. 1602. Written by Monteverdi.
Recitative Portion of Opera; not repetitive, tells the story. Dialogue; multiple characters.
Aria Portion of Opera; repetitive. Tells singers emotion. Usually A-B-A' format (da capo aria). Became crowd favourite; later operas began to consist of almost all arias. To show off. Wide range. Very melismatic.
Castrato Men that were castrated before puberty to retain their high singing voice. Became divos, high voices considered manly.
Farinelli The most famous castrato
Ritornello A short instrumental interlude at beginning or between sections of singing
Chamber Music A form of music written for a small group; originally performed in royal chamber
Basso Ostinato Short pattern in bass that repeats under changing melody (REPETITIVE)
Cantata Short musical number; 10-30 minutes long. Lyrical or quasi-dramatic text.
Stile Antico Prima Practica. 1600s. Many rules. Church music
Stile Moderno Seconda Practica. Counterpoint more free. 1700's.
Sacred concerto Composition on sacred text. One or more singers. Instrumental accompaniment.
Polychordal motet Piece when two choirs are singing
Oratorio Occurred during lent. Similar to opera, except sacred subject. Held in an oratory. Not staged; a choir and instruments telling a story instead of showing it. Narrative dialogue.
Heinrich Shutz German composer. Combined German text with Italian style.
Giacomo Carissimi Leading composer of oratorios -9 & 9
Chaconne Variations over a basso continuo (figured bass)
Passacaglia Lively dance song; derived from chaconne. Variations over a figured bass.
Suite Collection of dance songs; contrasting pieces linked together in a single work.
Toccata "touched" Keyboard or lute. Resembling improvisation. May include imitative sections or serve as prelude to fugue.
Girolami Frescobaldi Organist at St Peters Bascillica in Rome. Composer of taccatas. -frescos, angels, church, touched by an angel
Fantasia "fantasy" Improvisation on instrument; lack of fixed form.
Prelude Intro piece for solo instrument. Improv style. Or intro movement like opera or suite.
Fugue Very structured, metric piece. One subject, successive statements.
Canzona Instrumental piece with several contrasting sections. Imitative counterpoint.
Sonata Instrumental piece with several contrasting sections.
Solo sonata Piece played by one or more instruments. Baroque instrumental piece with contrasting sections "movements".
Trio sonata Piece played by treble instruments (usually violin) over a basso continuo (usually keyboard)
Arcangelo Corelli Violinist; composer of solo and trio sonatas
Lute Stringed instrument, most popular "virtuoso" instrument in baroque period.
Organ Pipes, loud. Used in sacred music, churches.
Clavecin French name for harpsichord
Style brise "broken style". Arrpegiated chords in 17th century France.
Clavichord Small plucked instrument, keyboard. Soft, expressive sound.
Opera Seria "serious opera". Recitative and aria. Diva culture formed. 1637 first opera house.
Da capo aria A B A', second A section = tons of showing off, runs, trills etc.
Alessandro Scarlatti Composer of operas and cantatas
Jean-Baptiste Lully Italian composer who moved to France to compose for King Louis the 14th. Had sole writing rights to writing operas in France until his death.
King Louis the 14th. The Sun King. Advocate of arts. Loved to dance. Employed Lully and Moliere as his sole entertainment providers.
Tragedie Lyrique 17-18th century form of opera by Lully; combines French classic drama with ballet and music
French overture Orchestral piece introducing an opera
Ornamentation Addition of embellishments to a melody
Notes inegales "Unequal notes"; used by French, alternating longer on-beat, shorter off-beat
Overdotting Used by French, long notes held longer than written; short notes shorter
Henry Purcell England's leading composer; wrote Dido and Aenus opera and vocal music
Antonio Vivaldi Best known composer of the 18th century; worked at the orphanage and composed for the girls. Taught them music lessons at Ospedali
Ospedali Orphanage. Vivaldi worked here, taught the girls music. Enhanced their prospects of marriage.
Solo concerto Piece where a single instrument contrasts with orchestra
Concerto grosso Small ensemble of solo instruments and a large ensemble
Ritornello form Vocal music with instrumental between stanzas/verses
Francois Couperin Blended French and Italian tastes. Organist in France. Wrote ondres aka suites
Jean-Phillipe Rameau Unknown before age 40. Leading composer after Lully's death.
Traite de l'Harmonie Treatise on Harmony. By Rameau. Summarized the counterpoint methods and ideas we study today.
Johann Sebastian Bach German composer; never left Germany. Had 3 stages of his life; a) organist, b) court, c) director. a) organist at Arnstadt, Muhlhausen and Weimar. b)Cothen c) Leipzig
The Well-Tempered Clavier Set of organ works by J.S. Bach
George Fredric Handel Travelled a lot with his music. Born same year as Bach, but lead a very different life. 1685. German composer, Germany to France to England. Famous for opera and oratorios.
Created by: 1109666776