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biosphere all life on earth and all parts on earth in which life exists
ecology the scientific study of organisms and organisms and their environment
biome similar organisms and climates ecosystem
community an assemblage of different populations that live in a defined area
population a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
species is a group of similar organisms that can breed and reproduce fertile offspring
environment a specific ecosystem
biotic factor any living part of an environment that an organism might interact with
abiotic factor any non-living part of the environment that an organism might interact with.
autotroph or primary producer uses solar or chemical energy to produce "food" by assembling inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules
photosynthesis captures light and energy and uses it to power chemical reactions
chemosynthesis where chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates
carnivore eats only meet
herbivore eats only plants
scavengers animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have already been killed by their preditors
omnivores eat meat and plants
decomposers chemically break down organic matter
detritivores commonly digest things already broken down by decomposers
food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by being eaten
phytoplankton floating alage
food web network of feeding interactions in their complexity described using a visual web
trophic level each step in the food chain or food web
ecological pyramid shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each tropic level in a given food chain/web
biomass the total amount of tissue within a given trophic level
pyramid of biomass shows the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in the ecosystem
pyramid of numbers the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in the ecosystem.
cells basic units of lif
cell theory all living things are made of cells cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things new cells are produced from existing cells
cell membrane all cells are surrounded by this thin flexible barrier
nucleus a large membrane enclosed structure that contains genetic material in the form of dna
eukaryotes enclose their dna in their nuclei such as fungai, plants, and animals and it contains a nucleus
prokaryotes dose not enclose dna within the nuclei and has no nucleus and an example is bacteria
cytoplasm Cytoplasm is the fluid that fills a cell. All of the organelles in a cell are suspended in cytoplasm. The liquid maintains the internal pressure of the cell, ensuring that it doesn't shrink like a deflated balloon.
organelles Different parts of the cell structure that resemble little organs
vacuoles store materials like water, carbohydrates, and salts
lysosomes Breaks down waste and detoxify poisons to clean the cell up. In addition, they salvage any materials the cell can use.
cytokeleton Gives the cells its shape and in addition helps transport materials between different parts of the cells. And cytoskeleton components may be involved in the moving of a entire cell.
centrioles Structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
ribosomes They follow instructions from the nucleus and create proteins that the cell needs. The free floating ribosomes create proteins that stay inside the cell. While the ones on the endoplasmic reticulum create proteins that can either leave the cell or stay wi
endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes dotting the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum follow instructions from the nucleus, and make proteins that the cell needs. The endoplasmic reticulum also prepares the proteins for transport to the golgi apparatus, the packaging plant of the c
golgi anaratus The Golgi receives vesicles containing proteins that were sent by rough er. It then if necessary modifies the proteins and then sends them where they need to go.
chloplasts Capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
mitocondria Make a cellular energy known as atp.
cell wall A strong supporting layer around the membrane known as a cell wall.
lipid bilayer Gives cell membrane a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings.
selectively permeable membrane Most membranes are selectively permeable so some substances can pass across them while others can not
diffusion Is the process by which molecules of a substance move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. It does not require the cell to use energy.
passive transport Movement across the cell membrane without using energy. Movement across the cell membrane without using energy.
facilitated diffusion Process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels. Process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels.
Aquapornis water Chanel protein in the cell
osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
istonic When the concentration of two substances is the same
hypertonic When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes. When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes.
hyportonic When comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.
osmotic pressure Pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
endocytosis Is the process of taking material into the cell by the means of inholdings or pockets of the cell membrane
phagocytosis Is a form of endocytosis in which an extension of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole. The cell then engulfs it. Amoebas use this method to take in food.
excocytosis The membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane forcing the contents out of the cell.
unicellular organisms single celled organisms
homeostatsis relatively equal internal and external balance
cell a particular organisms with a particular function
tissues group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organ group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
organ system group of organs that work together to form a specific function
energy ability to do work
ATP compound used by cells to store and release energy
hetertrophs consume energy by mainlining other living organisms
autroph makes food from sunlight
photosythesis process of making energy through sunlight
pigments light absorbing molecules used by plants to gather suns energy
chlorophyll principle pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
thaklokoids saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts
stroma fluid portion of the chloroplasts found outside the stroma
cyclins one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in the eukaryote cell
internal regulators respond to events within the cell
external regulators respond to events outside the cell
apoptosis to process of programmed cell death
differentiation process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
stem cells unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more type of specialized cells
totipotent cell cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body
blastocyst stage of early development in mammalas that consists of a hollow ball of cells
pluripotent cells cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all of the bodies cell types
mulitpotent cell cell with limited differentiation into many types of different cells
Heredity the delivery of characteristics from parent to offspring
genetics scientific study of heredity
trait a specific characteristic of an individual such as seed color or plant height that may vary from one individual to another
hybrid the offspring crosses between parents with different traits
genes the factors that are passed from parents to offspring
alleles the different forms of a gene
principle of dominance some alleles are dominate while others are recessive
segregation separation of alleles
gamates sex cells
probability likelihood that something will occur
homozygous organism if an organism has two identical alleles for a particular gene
heterozygous organism organisms that have two different alleles for the same gene
genotype genetic make up
phenotype physical traits
punnet square helps predict the genotype and phenotype combinations of a genetic cross
incomplete dominance situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
co dominance situation in which the phenotypes produced both alleles are completely expressed
multiple alleles a gene that has more than two alleles
polygenic traits trait controlled by two or more genes
Created by: walshi18