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Speech Science

12 Speech production models and instrumentation in speech.

QuestionAnswer
Speech Production Models -Help explain how the system works -Predict the results of a breakdown (i.e, lesion) at any point in the system. -Identify where breakdowns have occurred. i.e., Given a symptom, an accurate model should help pin-point the location of the lesion
Closed-Loop Systems -Operation is dependent on internal feedback (self-monitoring systems) . -i.e., a heater/air conditioner with a thermostat or A light that automatically comes on at dark.
Open-Loop Systems -Operation is not dependent on internal feedback -e.g., heater/air conditioner without a thermostat. Continues to heat/cool regardless of surrounding temperature or a unit on a timer (not getting any feedback)
The Speech Production Mechanism is what type of system? Closed-loop Servosystem
Lombard Effect -Evidence that the speech system is a servosystem -as the noise around us gets louder, we talk louder. b/c we are use to hearing ourselves at a certain level auditorally and through bone conduction.
Side Tone -Evidence that the speech system is a servosystem -how we sound to ourselves when we talk through air and bine conduction
Delayed Auditory Feedback “DAF” -Evidence that the speech system is a servosystem -when timing of feedback from our own voice is altered what happens? We slow down our speech. -makes normal people dysfluent, but makes stutters fluent
Fairbanks Servosystem motor lungs/ air pressure
Fairbanks Servosystem Generator vocal folds/ voicing
Fairbanks Servosystem Modulator valves and articulators
Fairbanks Servosystem Output what is said
Fairbanks Servosystem Channel 1 Audition/ ability to hear yourself speak by air conduction
Fairbanks Servosystem Channel 2 Hearing yourself by bone conduction
Fairbanks Servosystem Comparator where u compare what you said w/ what you intended.
Fairbanks Servosystem mixer where we change what we said to the correct output
Black & Lee (1951) -First described the effects of DAF -syllable repetitions -sound prolongations -slower reading rate -artic errors -males more affected than females -Greatest effect on speech was when the delay was 200 ms -Suggest we function @ syllable level
What unit of speech lasts about 200ms? Avg syllable
Bob Ringel & colleagues at Purdue (early 1970s) 1st described effects of auditory masking & Xylocaine injections on speech. Found: -Loss of tactile feedback affected consonants more than vowels -Auditory masking disturbed vowel quality and rhythm -Speech was altered but remained highly intelligible
Peter Ladefoged theory on vowels and consonants Vowels are monitored auditorily, while consonants are regulated mostly by tactile/proprioceptive feedback.
the speech production unit requires how much feedback to maintain intelligibility requires at least periodic auditory feedback to see that it is operating OK
Oral Stereognosis the ability to use tactile information to make perceptual judgments
Vibrotactile Thresholds the ability to detect the presence of sound vibrations
Two-Point Discrimination How close together 2 pins can be when they touch you, and you still sense 2 pin pricks (i.e. a differential threshold)
Which is more sensitive front or back of mouth? Front of the mouth
Which is most sensitive lips, tongue, or velum? Sensitivity in this order: 1) Tongue 2) Lips 3) Velum
Which is more sensitive finger tips or tongue? tongue
Children with articulation disorders and oral stereognosis tasks -Children with articulation errors performed poorer on oral stereognosis tasks than normal speakers the same age.
stereognostic skills improve with age
What are the implications for the term functional articulation disorders? Means we haven't identified an organic or physical bases. Does NOT mean there wasn't one before, but that we can't see one now b/c we can’t go back in time.
What are the implications for conclusions drawn from an oral peripheral examination? -All u can say is what person is doing today -Cannot make causal conclusions
Types of Speech Production Measurements -Neurologic Events -Aerodynamic Events -Structural Movement -Acoustic Signal
Types of ways to measure Neurological Events -Electroencephlograph (EEG)- -Electromyography (EMG)- measures timing of muscles as they fire -Functional MRI (fMRI)
Plethysmograph Aerodynamic Event Device that measures the amount of air you’re exchanging
Oral Manometer Aerodynamic Event Device that measures how much pressure are you generating
Spirometer Aerodynamic Event Device that measures air flow as it comes out
Nasometer Aerodynamic Event Device that measures how much air is coming out the nore rater than mouth. Used in cleft palate patients
Pneumotachograph Aerodynamic Event Device that measures the rate at which air is moving
Strain Gauge measuring jaw & lip movement
Electropalatography measures tongue placement
Created by: aramos139