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Neuroanatomy

neuroterms

QuestionAnswer
Widespread in CNS. Regulates telencephalic activity, critical for the sleep-wake cycle, influences stereotyped movements, In the PNS it is a neuromuscular junction-excitatory for muscle contraction Acetylcholine (ACH)
Located in the midbrain, basal ganglia, amygdala, cortex-involved in movement, motivation, and cognition Dopamine
basic anatomic and functional unit of the nervous system Neuron
cell body that actively synthesizes proteins soma (perikaryon)
shorter and more numerous projections of the nerve cell dendrites
longer single fiber of neuron that conducts nerve impulses away from neuron to other parts of nervous system, glands, muscle. Arise from axon hillock. Axons
the fine filaments seen in neurons through an electron microscope. dense bundles in axoplasm. neurofilaments
end of axon. corresponds to points of contact/synapse bouton
the site at which one axton terminal communicates with another neuron synapse
ratio of solute and water across a membrane concentration gradient
most important neuronal pump; provides energy to a cell along an electrical gradient powered by positively charged ions and negatively charged ions sodium-potassium pump
positively charged ions cations
negatively charged ions anions
relative amount of voltage in an electrical field potential
teh ionic difference across the membrane at a steady state resting potential
a mechanical, thermal, electrical or chemical stimulus strong enough to change the cell membrane's potential adequate stimulus
loss of the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle or nerve cell caused by a change in permeability and migration of sodium ions to the interior depolarization
buildup of electrical current in the neuron. the neural impulse that travels to another cell body, another dendrite, or another cell's axon. action potential
short-lived depolarizations or hyper-polarizations of an area of membrane. These changes cause local flows of current (movement of ions) that decrease with distance. When this occurs in a receptor cell it is called a receptor potential. Graded potentials
increased production in potential difference across a biologic membrane hyperpolarization
the substance released from an axonal terminal of a presynaptic neuron once the neuron is excited; travels across the synaptic cleft to excite or inhibit the targeted cell neurotransmitter
interruption of the blood flow to the brain as a result of occlusive or hemorrhagic mechanisms cerebrovascular accident
glial cell in the PNS that is responsible for forming and maintaining myelin around axons in PNS Schwann Cells
the region wher the cell body meets the axon Axon Hillock
axon that branch off the main axon Axon collaterals
these are areas on the axon that are not covered with a myelin sheeth. The action potential jump from the node to node down the axon nodes of ranvier
Created by: bertaka