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BIOL211

Majors Cellular: Biotechnology vocabulary

TermDefinition
Active transport Movement of a substance to an area of high []. Requires ATP energy. (ie pushing a ball up a hill) (ex: sodium-potassium pump)
Cotransport Coupling of "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
Crenate state When an animal cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, it shrivels and appears bumpy.
Diffusion Movement of a substance from an area of high [] to an area of low []. Requires no energy (passive).
Electrogenic pump An ion transport protein that generates a voltage across the membrane.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis This type of endocytosis brings in specific molecules via specific proteins located in the membrane.
Exocytosis Shipping of large molecules out of the cell. Involves fusion of vesicles containing the large biological molecules with the plasma membrane resulting in release into the extracellular environment.
Facilitated This type of diffusion requires the assistance of a transmembrane (integral) protein.
Flaccid state When a plant cell is in an isotonic environment, there is no net energy for water to enter the cell (ie lacking turgor).
Fluid mosaic model A model of the cell membrane which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
Hypertonic/hyperosmotic High solution [].
Hypotonic/hypoosmotic Low solution [].
Integral Proteins that penetrate the hydrophobic region of the membrane (ie they span the entire width of the membrane).
Isotonic/isoosmotic A solution having the same [].
Ligands A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule; usually another one.
Lysed state When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, it bursts.
OAS (osmotically active substance) In the diffusion lab, sucrose was the _______.
Osmolarity The solute [] expressed as molarity.
Osmoregulation The ability of an organism to regulate water balance and solute [].
Osmosis The movement of water from an area of high water [] to an area of low water []. Requires no energy (passive).
Peripheral Proteins that are loosely bound to the surface of membranes.
Phagocytosis A way of bringing large molecules into the cell via cellular eating.
Pinocytosis A way of bringing large into the cell via nonspecific cellular drinking.
Plasmolyzed state When a plant cell is placed into a hypertonic solution, the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis This type of endocytosis brings in molecules via specific proteins located in the membrane.
Selectively permiable Membranes which allow some materials to move through readily while others must be assisted.
Sodium-potassium pump (Na+-K+) A transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transport sodium out of the cell and potassium in.
Turgid state When the central vacuole of a plant cell is full of fluid (mostly water).
Turgor pressure The force directed against a plant cell wall (1°) after the influx of water and swelling of the cell due to osmosis.
Created by: scandalouscanine