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Histology Ch 8

Basic Tissue

turnover time time it takes for newly divided cells to be completely replaced throughout body
epithelium covers/lines external and internal body surfaces (vessels/small cavities); protects inner structures from physical, chemical, pathogenic attack, dehydration, heat loss; functions in tissue absorption, secretin, sensory, other specialized functions
simple epithelium single layer of epithelial cells
simple squamous flattened platelike epithelial cells (squames) lining blood/lymphatic vessels, heart, serous cavities, lungs, kidneys
endothelium simple squamous epithelium lining of vessels and serous cavities
basement membrane thin acellular structure between any form of epithelium and deeper CT
pseudostratified columnar epithelium lines upper respiratory tract - nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
cuboidal cells line salivary glands
columnar cells line salivary gland ducts
stratified epithelium two or more layers, only deepest layer lines up w. basement membane
stratified squamous epithelium most tissue in the body - superifical layer of skin and oral mucosa
rete ridges interdigitation of outer epithelium with deeper CT w/ basement membrane between
keratin tough, fibrous, opaque, waterproof protein impervious to pathogenic invasion and resistant to friction
basal lamina superficial layer of basement membrane
lamina lucida clear layer of basement membrane closer to epithelium
lamina densa dense layer of basement membrane closer to connective tissue
reticular lamina deeper layer of basement membrane of collagen and reticular fibers
collagen fibers main CT fiber found everywhere in body except blood; great tensile strength
Collagen fibers Type I most common type in skin dermis, lamina propria, bone, teeth, tendons, and virtually all CT
Collagen Fibers Type II in hyaline and elastic cartilage
Collagen Fibers type III main component of reticular fibers, artery walls, skin, intestines, and uterus; in granulation tissue, produced quickyly by young fibroblasts, commonly found w/ type I
collagen fibers type IV in basal lamina, eye lens, and filtration system of capilaries and kidneys nephron glomeruli
elastic fibers composed of microfilaments embedded in protein elastin; found in lamina propria of soft palate
reticular fibers found in embryonic tissue, less common in body; composed of protein reticulin, very fine, hairlike fibers that branch, forming network; predominant in lymph nodes and spleen
fibroblasts most common cell in CT; synthesize proteins and intercellular substances to sustain CT; flat, elongated cells w/ cytoplasmic processes at each end
cartilage firm, nonmineralized CT that serves as skeletal tissue of body; composed of cells and matrix
perichondrium fibrous CT sheath containing blood vessels surrounding most cartilage
chondroblast produce cartilage matrix and chondrocytes
chondrocytes mature chondroblasts that maintain cartilage matrix
lacunae small space surrounding chondrocyte within cartilage matrix
hyaline cartilage most common; contains only collagen fibers; found in embryonic skeleton and growth centers (mandibular condyle); all cartilage starts out like this then differentiates
elastic cartilage has numerous elastic fibers and collagen fibers; found in external ear, auditory tube, epiglottis and parts of larynx
fibrocartilage transitional type of cartilage between hyaline and dense CT of ligaments and tendons; never found alone; great tensile strength; no perichondrium over it
bone rigid CT makes up most of skeleton; undergoes most developmental differentiation of all CT
periosteum double-layered, dense CT sheath covering outer parts of bone; contains blood vessels/nerves; inner layer made up of single layer of osteoblasts
compact bone dense layer deep to periosteum
cancellous bone spongy bone deep to compact bone
endosteum lines medullary cavity of bone inside compact and cancellous bone
bone marrow innermost part of bone in medullary cavity; location of blood stem cells, site for lymphocyte creation, and B-cell maturation
osteoid initial bone matrix; minerlizes to form bone; produced by osteoblasts
osteocytes entrapped mature osteoblasts within mature bone
canaliculi tubular canals of bone matrix containing cytoplasmic processes of osteocytes
lamellae closely apposed sheets of compact bone
haversion system highly organized arrangement of concentric lamellae in compact bone
osteons unit of structure in compact one consisting of 5 to 20 lamallae
haversion canal (osteonic or central canals) central vascular canal within each osteon surrounded by lamellae; contains blood vessels, nerves, small amount of CT and lined by endosteum
Volkmann's canals located on outer part of compact bone; nutrient, vascular, nerve components; communicate with other canals
trabeculae joined matrix pieces forming lattice in cancellous bone; concentric rings formed into cone-shaped spicules
ossification bone development; intramembranous or endochondrial
intramembranous ossification formation of osteoid between two dense CT sheets, eventually replaces outer CT; mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts to form osteoid; maxilla and maj. of mandible
endochondral ossification formation of osteoid within hyaline cartilage model that becomes mineralized and dies; bone matrix replaces earlier cartilage model; mandibular condyle and long bones
immature bone (woven bone) first bone produced by either method of ossificatin; temporary, indistinct arrangement of collagen fibers and lamellae
secondary bone replaces immature bone; can be compact or cancellous; well-oranized collagen fibers and distinct lamellae
osteoclast large multinucleated cell on surface of secondary bone that resorbs bone
howships lacuna large, shallow pit created by resorption
arrest lines (resting lines) smooth lines between layers of bone b/c of osteoblasts having rested, formed bone, and rested again after appositional growth
reversal lines scalloped lines between layers of bone indicating where bone resorption has taken place followed by appositional growth of new bone
blood fluid CT that serves as transport medium for cellular nutrients; carried in endothelium lined vessels; consists of plasma and cells
plasma fluid substance in blood vessels that carries plasma proteins, blood cells, and metabolites; more consistent than tissue fluid/lymph
RBC or erythrocyte biconcave disc containing hemoglobin; most common cell in blood; no nucleus
platelets (thrombocytes) smaller, disc shaped fragment of a blood cell; no nucleus, function in clotting mechanism
WBCs involved in defense mechanism of body - inflammatory and immune responses; found in small numbers in epithelium and CT
neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte PMNs) most common WBC, first cells at injury, large numbers at suppuration; multilobed nucleus w/ granules; phagocytosis
lymphocyte eccentric round nucleus without granules; B, T, NK cells; defense against tumor and virally infected cells
plasma cell round cartwheel nucleus derived from B-cell lymphocytes; humoral immune response: produces immunoglobulins (antibodies)
monocyte (blood)/macrophage (tissue) bean-shaped nucleus w/ poorly staining granules; inflammatory and immune: phagocytosis and present immunogens (antigens); most common type in CT proper
eosinophil bilobed nucleus w/ granules; hypersensitivity response (allergy) and parasitic diseases, main function phagocytosis of immune complexes
basophil irregularly shaped bilobed/trilobed nucleus w/ granules; hypersensitivity response
mast cell irregularly shaped bilobed nucleus with granules; hypersensitivity response
immunogen proteins seen by body as foreign and capable of triggering immune response
IgA two subgroups: serous in blood, secretory in saliva, tears, and breast milk; both aid in defense against pathogens in body fluids
IgD functions in activation of B-cell as antigen receptor; has been shown to activate basophils and mast cells to produce antimicrobial factors
IgE involved in hypersensitivity response; binds to mast cells and basophils, and releases bioactive substances such as histamine
IgG four subgroups: major immunoglobulin in blood serum and an pass placental barrier to form first passive immunity for newborn
IgM involved in early immune responses against pathogens b/c of involvement with IgD in activation of Bcell before sufficient IgG production
skeletal muscles muscles under voluntary control involving somatic nervous system
muscle derived from somites, shortens under neural control causing soft tissue and bony structures of body to move
smooth muscle located in organs, glands, and linings of blood vessels
cardiac muscle in wall of heart (myocardium)
neuron functional cellular component of NS composed of neural cell body with two neural cytoplasmic processes: dendrites and axon
nerve bundle of neural processes outside CNS and in PNS
synapse junction between two neurons or between neuron and effector organ where neural impulses transmitted by neurotransmitters
ganglion aggregation of neuron cell bodies outside CNS
Created by: jablain09
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