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Digestive Lev-2

TermDefinition
nutrients Compounds found in the environment that living organisms need to grow and survive. The 6 types are water, fat, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
carbohydrates A nutrient that the body breaks down into simple sugars. Foods containing these include bread, pasta, candy, grains, rice, cereal, etc.
proteins A nutrient that the body breaks down into amino acids. Foods containing these include meat, beans, cheese, milk, tofu, etc.
enzymes Special chemicals that speed up chemical reactions.
glands The special organs where enzymes are made. Examples include the liver and pancreas.
pancreas A gland that produces the enzymes insulin & glucagon.
liver A gland/organ that produces the enzyme bile to break down fats.
peristalsis The waves of muscle squeezing that move food through the digestive system. Happens in the esophagus, stomach, both intestine, rectum and out the anus.
muscle A type of tissue that can cause movement by squeezing or by pulling on bones.
chyme The watery mixture of food and gastric juices in the stomach.
diffusion When molecules move across a membrane, into or out of a cell. This is what lets nutrient molecules move from the small intestine through the walls of the blood vessels into the blood, for transport around the body.
villi Tiny finger-like projections on the walls of the small intestine, full of tiny blood vessels (capillaries), where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream.
large intestine The organ where extra water is removed from the nutrient-free mixture, to be sent back to the body.
diarrhea Condition when too little water is removed from chyme in large intestine; watery feces.
constipation Condition when too much water is absorbed from chyme in large intestine; hard feces.
blood A liquid tissue that transports nutrients to cells, as well as transporting hormones, cellular wastes & special cells to & from all parts of the body. It is red!
rectum The "waiting room" at the end of the large intestine. Feces waits here before being released from the body out the anus.
anus The opening at the end of the large intestine, right after the rectum. Feces is released from the body out of this. The opening and closing is controlled by a ring of muscle tissue.
Created by: rhk9