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Forensics Ch. 3

hair, blood, dirt, fingerprints, paint, glass, weapons, wounds, clothes, tire tread ten examples of common types of physical evidence
determines the physical or chemical identity of a substance with as near absolute certainty as possible purpose of identification
drugs and explosives two types of evidence that will be identified
determines whether 2 or more objects have a common origin comparison analysis
a standard/reference sample what is required for a comparison?
as probability how are results of a comparison analysis reported?
properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty individual characteristics
fingerprints, 7-layered paint two examples of individual characteristics
properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and never with a single source class characteristics
tire tread, blood type two examples of class characteristics
multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring genetic markers to obtain an overall frequency of occurrence for a genetic profile product rule
jury who decides the significance of physical evidence in a trial
record of everything that happened to the evidence from the moment it is discovered until it arrives in court or is destroyed chain of custody
helps make sure you don't lose/damage evidence and allows you to use it in court why is chain of custody relevant?
recognition, identification, comparison, individualization, reconstruction stages in analysis of physical evidence
can be used to match a victim to a suspect or a suspect to a crime forensic database
AFIS fingerprint database
CODIS DNA database
IBIS alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives database
profiles of convicted/arrested offender
unsolved crime scene forensic indexes
build a new model of crime scene to decide how crime took place crime scene reconstruction
blood spatter patterns, bullet trajectories, penetrated glass, residues useful techniques to aid criminalists in crime scene reconstruction
securing/protecting the scene what is the first and most important step in crime scene reconstruction?
PDQ because you can't always know exactly where paint came from which of the forensic databases contain information that relates primarily to evidence exhibiting class characteristics?
CODIS because DNA can give a perfect match which forensic databases contain information that relates primarily to exhibiting individual characteristics?
paint, DNA, Ted Bundey Gary Ridgeway
parts of chipped body Richard Craft
Created by: pace_sauce