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COM 325

Exam 2

TermDefinition
3 Dimensions of Self-Disclosure described by SPT 1. Depth and Breadth 2. Frequency and Duration 3. Valence and Veracity
Depth How personal or deep the communication is
Breadth Captures how many topics a person feels free to discuss
Frequency How often people self-disclose
Duration How long people self-disclose
Valence Refers to the positive or negative "charge" of the self-disclosure
Veracity Refers to how honest or deceptive the self-disclosure is
Disclosure-Liking Hypothesis Predicts that when a sender discloses to a receiver, the receiver will like the sender more. - When people received more in-depth disclosure, they reported feeling more liking and closeness to their partner
Liking-Disclosure Hypothesis Predicts that people will disclose more to receivers they like. - People are more likely to disclose to close relational partners and to people to whom they are attracted to than people they dislike
Dyadic Effect - Otherwise known as reciprocal self-disclosure - The vehicle by which people build close relationships - Occurs when a person reveals information and the partner responds by offering information that i sat a similar level of intimacy
Who prefers online medium for disclosure: communicatively skillful or unskillful? Online medium for disclosure: communicatively unskillful...use for anonymity, can plan out their responses, not as stimulative, can craft messages to their benefit
Communication Privacy Management Theory Key Terms Ownership Permeability Boundary Management Turbulence Cooperation (?)
Communication Privacy Management Theory - Helps explain how individuals maintain privacy boundaries - Central feature is its recognition that we cherish our rights to privacy and our ability to control information - Most interesting questions revolve around information ownership issues
Ownership When people feel that they have ownership over information, they believe they also have the "right" to control who has access to it
Permeability Similar to a barometer measuring how freely people allow otehrs to share information they disclosed about themselves
Boundary Management - 5 Factors The rules for communication boundary management are influenced by 5 main factors: 1. Culture 2. Personality 3. Relationship 4. Biological Sex 5. Motivations
Boundary Management - Culture Some cultures have relatively loose rules regarding what topics are appropriate to discuss with strangers, other cultures are more restrictive
Boundary Management - Personality Guides disclosure decisions
Boundary Management - Relationship Attraction, closeness, and relationship type (friends versus coworkers) impact the dynamics of privacy and self-disclosure
Boundary Management - Biological Sex Women tend to disclose more than men
Boundary Management - Motivations Motivated to make friends vs. accomplish a tash
Cooperation - Successful boundary management often requires this between people - People must involve others in their information-boundary management; aka boundary insiders - To maintain coordinated bound. structures, people usually develop penalties for violation
Turbulence - Co-owners of information sometimes undergo boundary turbulence - Occurs when new events force renewed boundary management
Types of Family Secrets 1. Whole-Family Secrets 2. Intra-Family Secrets 3. Individual Secrets
Whole-Family Secrets Held by the entire family and kept from outsiders - Ex. Keep a child's sex abuse by a family member secret from all those outside the immediate family
Intra-Family Secrets Occurs when some family members have information they keep from others members - Ex. Keeping sexual abuse between you and your sister, but don't tell other family members.
Individual Secrets Information is held by single individual and kept secret from other family members - Ex. You received harassment at school after 9/11 because you are Middle Eastern, but you don't tell your family.
Reasons for Topic Avoidance and Secret Keeping (3) 1. Relationship-based 2. Individual-based 3. Information-based
Relationship-based for Secret Keeping - People can use topic avoidance to strengthen or disengage from a relationship - Relationship protection - Relationship de-escalation - Fear of abandonment often explained someone's decision to avoid certain topics or keep something a secret
Relationship Protection The single biggest motivator leading to avoidance of a particular issue with a relationship partner
Relationship De-Escalation When people avoid discussing certain topics or keep secrets in hopes of destroying the relationship or preventing it from becoming closer
Individual-based for Secret Keeping - May make them "look bad" - aka identity management - Fear of embarrassment or criticism, fueled by feelings of vulnerability - #1: Fear that disclosure will threatened identities - #2: Relationship Protection - #3: Maintain privacy
Information-based for Secret Keeping - Based on the information they expect to receive from the other person - Partner Unresponsiveness - Futility of Discussion - Communication inefficacy - Identity Management and relationship protection
InfoSecretKeep - Partner Unresponsiveness An individual might suspect that the other person will find the disclosure trivial, not respond in a helpful way, or lack the requisite knowledge to respond
InfoSecretKeep - Futility of Discussion People also engage in topic avoidance or secret keeping when they believe that talking about a particular topic would be a "waste of time"
InfoSecretKeep - Communication Inefficacy People often avoid a topic or keep something secret because they don't feel they have the communication skills to bring up the topic or maintain discussion in a competent and effective manner
InfoSecretKeep - Identity Management and Relationship Protection The most commonly cited reasons for information management and tend to work together to prohibit disclosure
Types of Closeness in Relationships 1. Physical 2. Emotional 3. Relational
Physical Closesness Refers to the amount of spatial proximity and physical contact people have - Engaging in behaviors such as touching, sitting next to each other, and putting one's head on another's shoulder all indicate physical closeness
Emotional Closeness Having a sense of shared experiences, trust, enjoyment, concern, and caring in a relationship - Sharing and caring are fundamental to both the experiecne and the expression of emotional closeness
Relational Closness - Interdependence people share - Interdependent partners exchange resources, influence one another's thoughts, behaviors, and emotions, and meet each other's needs - Also conceptualized in terms of the degree to which two individuals overlap
Affectionate Communication Direct verbal behavior, direct nonverbal behavior, indirect nonverbal behavior
Affectionate Communication - Direct Verbal Behavior self-disclosure, direct emotional expressions, compliments and praise, and assurances - Ex. "I care about you"/"I love you"
Affectionate Communication - Direct Nonverbal Behavior - Many NV behaviors, such as hugging someone, are direct and nonverbal expressions of affections because others commonly interpret them as communicating affection - Social Meaning Model of Nonverbal Communication - Vocalic Behavior
Direct Nonverbal Behavior - Social Meaning Model of NV Comm Some NV behaviors have strong consensual meanings across different contexts (smiling = happy) - i.e. physical closeness, eye contact, vocal behavior
Vocalic Behavior Speaking tenderly or in a warm voice, laughing with someone, talking faster when excited, and using a moderate amount of talk time are related to affection
Affectionate Communication - Indirect Nonverbal Behavior Two types of affectionate communication that are indirect and nonverbal expressions of affection: 1. Support Behaviors; 2. Idiomatic Behaviors
Support Behaviors Involve giving someone emotional or instrumental support - Ex. bringing over food to a new mother
Idiomatic Behaviors Have a specific meaning only to people in a particular relationship - Ex. nicknames or NV vues
Immediacy Behaviors Actions that signal warmth, communicative availability, decrease psychological or physical distance, and promote involvement between people - AKA positive involvement behaviors bc they show positive affect and high levels of involvement in interaction
Verbal Immediacy - Word Choice - Forms of address - Depth of disclosure - Relationship indicators
Nonverbal Immediacy - Visual or oculesic behaviors - Spatial/proxemics behaviors - Tactile/haptic behaviors - Body movement or kinesics - Vocalic communication - Chronemic behaviors
Affectionate communication and affection are rooted in the feelings of ___ and _____ _______ that have developed toward someone over time. Fondness; positive regard
Immediacy In contrast to affectionate communication, is a style of communicating that is used across a wide variety of interactions to express involvement and positivity without necessarily expressing affection.
Immediacy Examples Shaking hands, smiling, making direct eye contact in a job interview
Types of Verbal Immediacy - Word Choice - We vs. I vs. you and me - This and these vs. that and those - Here vs. there
Types of Verbal Immediacy - Forms of address - Casual forms of address also imply a closer relationship as do nicknames - Informal nicknanes in formal settings = bahd
Types of Verbal Immediacy - Depth of disclosure - Close relationships are characterized by deep rather than superficial interactions - Self-revealing statements vs. shallow statements
Types of Verbal Immediacy - Relationship Indicators The language partners used to refer to each other suggests a certain public, relational image that is an index of the closeness between them - Ex. roommate vs. friend vs. boyfriend
Types of Nonverbal Immediacy - Visual/Oculesic Behaviors - Essential in establishing emotional closeness - Eye contact is widely recognized as an invitation to communicate
Types of Nonverbal Immediacy - Spatial/Proxemic Behaviors - The way people use space in interpersonal communication, signals the level of closeness in a relationship
Types of Nonverbal Immediacy - Tactile/Haptic Behaviors - Closeness and touching - Key immediacy behavior that reflects closeness (H)
Types of Nonverbal Immediacy - Body Movement/Kinesics - Comprises body movements such as smiling, body positions, and posture
Body Synchrony High levels of coordinated movement
Types of Nonverbal Immediacy - Vocalic Comm - Changes in pitch, volume, rate and tone of voice are sometimes more important than words - Ex. how you're saying it vs. derived meaning
Types of Nonverbal Immediacy - Chronemic Behaviors - The way people use time - Ex. spending time with another person, making time to listen to someone talk
Types of Supportive Communication (6) 1. Emotional Support 2. Esteem Support 3. Informational Support 4. Tangible Aid 5. Network Support 6. Invisible Support
Emotional Support Involves expressing caring, concern, and empathy
Esteem Support Used to bolster someone's self-wroth by making that person feel valued, admired, and capable
Tangible Aid Occurs when people provide physical assistance, goods or services, such as babysitting someone's children or helping someone complete a task
Network Support Involves directing someone to a person or group who can help them because they have had similar experiences
Invisible Support Suggests that support attempts that go unnoticed by recipients are the most effective in reducing distress and promoting good health - People want to be viewed as autonomous and capable, rather than dependent and needy
Types of Person-Centered Messages (3) 1. High 2. Moderate 3. Low
Types of Person-Centered Messages - High - Help distressed people gain perspective on their feelings - Also legitimize the distressed person's feelings - Ex. "I am so sorry to hear that." "That must be so hard for you." "I am sure your Aunt is a wonderful person." etc.
Types of Person-Centered Messages - Moderate - Acknowledge the distressed person's feelings, but these messages do not help the distressed person contextualize or elaborate on the situation - "Don't worry, she'll be okay." or "It will be all right. I know your aunt and she'll beat this."
Types of Person-Centered Messages - Low - sometimes called position-centered messages - Implicitly or explicitly deny the legitimacy of the distressed person's feelings, sometimes by blaming the distressed person for the situation and other times by changing the topic or focus
Types of Person-Centered Messages - Low Examples - "You shouldn't be worried. It is Stage 1, so it is curable." - I knew this would happen. Cancer runs in your family and your Aunt never gets checked."
Sexual Attitudes Procreational, recreational, relational
Procreational Reflects the belief that producing offspring is the primary purpose of sexual intercourse
Recreational Viewing sex as a primary source of fun, escape, excitement or pleasure
Relational Holds that sexual intercourse is a way of expressing love and affection, and developing greater relational intimacy
Serial Monogamy Couples that are sexually active only with each other (monogamy) and do not engage in other sexual relationships until the current relationship ends
Scheflen's Quasi-Courtship Stages (5) 1. Attention Stage 2. Courtship Readiness Stage 3. Positioning Stage 4. Invitations and Sexual Arousal Stage 5. Resolution Stage
SQCS - Attention Stage Get the other person's attention and to present oneself in the best possible light - either strategically or accidentally
SQCS - Courtship Readiness Stage sometimes referred to as the recognition stage; the initiator of the flirtation determines whether the person is approachable for interaction
SQCS - Positioning Stage Once attracted to one another, individuals engage in a series of these behaviors that signal availability for interaction & indicate to others that they are,at least temporarily a "couple' and so should be left alone - close distancing/facing one another
SQCS - Invitations and Sexual Arousal Stage the beginning of this stage is marked by subtle touch and sexual contact
SQCS - Resolution Stage If an invitation is accepted and sexual interaction occurs, the final stage has been reached
Christopher and Cate's Couple Types for Sexual Involvement Rapid-Involvement, Gradual-Involvement, Delayed-Involvement, Low-Involvement
Rapid-Involvement Couples Have high levels of physical arousal and have sex on the first date and shortly thereafter
Gradual-Involvement Couples Let sexual involvement increase gradually as the relationship develops and becomes more psychologically intimate
Delayed-Involvement Couples Wait until the two people consider themselves to be a committed couple to become sexually involved
Low-Involvement Couples Usually wait to have sex until the partners are engaged or married
Sexual Coercion Occurs when an individual pressures or forces another to engage in sexual activity or practices considered unacceptable by most people, with physical force the most unacceptable
Sexual Harassment Occurs when inappropriate sexual comments, behaviors, or requests create a hostile work or school environment or when a person feels pressure to have sex to avoid negative consequences.
Responses to Sexual Harassment Passive, Assertive, Retaliatory
Passive Responses to Sexual Harassment Aka indirect strategies; involve ignoring the harassment or appeasing the harasser
Active Responses to Sexual Harassment Involve telling the harasser to stop the behavior, with statements such as "please stop bothering me" or {I'm not interested in you that way." Also involve issuing warnings, such as threatening to talk to the harasser's supervisor
Retaliatory Responses to Sexual Harassment Involve punishing or getting revenge on the harasser, usually by harassing the person back, making derogatory comments about the harasser to others, or getting the harasser in trouble.
Types of Love from Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love Intimacy, Passion, Commitment
Intimacy - STTL Based on feelings of emotional connection and closeness and has therefore been called the "warm" part of love
Types of Intimacy - STTL Romantic Love Friendship Love Latent Intimacy Manifest Intimacy
Romantic Love Passion is combined with intimacy; initial stages of dating relationships, when two people are sexually attracted to each other and feel an intimate connection but have not yet fully committed themselves to the relationship
Friendship Love Commitment combined with intimacy; Transcends relationship type - love for family members and friends
Latent Intimacy Refers to internal feelings of closeness and interpersonal warmth, which are not directly observable by others, we feel this inside
Manifest Intimacy Refers to how people communicate affection and closeness to someone, such as disclosing intimate feelings to a partner or spending extra time together
Passion - STTL The "hot" component of love that consists of motivation and arousal, but it is not limited to sexual arousal, friends can experience this as well
Infatuation (type of passion) - Occurs when people have passion without intimacy or commitment - This type of individuals idealize the objects of their affection and imagine that their lives would be wonderful if they could develop a relationship with that person
Commitment - STTL - Refers to the decision to love someone an the commitment to maintain that love - Trust was rated as most central to love - Out of all 3 component of STTL, this is the one most stable over time
Empty Love When individuals have commitment but relatively low levels of intimacy and passion
Relational Holds that sexual intercourse is away of expressing love and affection,
Lee's Love Styles Primary and Secondary
Primary - LLS Eros, Storge, Ludus
Eros Romantic love; rooted in feelings of affection, attraction, and sexual desire. Closely related to being "in love"
Storge Friendship love; Aka compassionate love, based on high levels of intimacy and commitment but comparatively love levels of passion - Comfortable, affectionate, trusting love for a likable partner, based on a deep sense of friendship and companionship
Ludus Game-playing love; this type of lovers see relationships as fun, playful, and casual; they view relationships as games to be played
Secondary - LLS Mania, Agape, Pragma
Mania Possessive love; a combination of eros & ludus (contains elements related to passion & game-playing). Tend to be more demanding, dependent, possessive, & jealous than other love styles.Often feel a need to be in control & know everything partner is doing
Agape Compassionate love; Revolves around caring, concern, & tenderness, & is more focused on giving than receiving.Contains elements of both eros & storge. This type of lover has a deep, abiding, highly passionate love for partner - not only in physical sense
Pragma Practical love; combines elements of storge & ludus. Storge bc these lovers r seeking a compatible partner. Undertones of ludic style bc these lovers typically avoid emotional risk taking & commit to relationship after careful thought & considerable time.
Adult Attachment Styles Secure, Preoccupied, Fearful-Avoidant, Dismissive
Secure - Adult Attachment Styles Comfortable, getting close to and depending on romantic partners and seldom worry about being abandoned. They strive for a balance of autonomy and closeness in relationships. "I'm okay, you're okay."
Preoccupied - Adult Attachment Styles Overly involved and dependent wants excessive intimacy, clings to relationships. "I'm not okay, you're okay."
Fearful-Avoidant - Adult Attachment Styles Wants approval from others, is fearful of intimacy, sees relationship as painful. "I'm not okay, you're not okay."
Dismissive - Adult Attachment Styles Counterdependent; is uncomfortable with intimacy, sees relationships as nonessential. "I'm okay, you're not okay."
Prosocial Maintenance Behaviors Majority of behaviors used to maintain relationships; positive behaviors that promote relational closeness, trust, and liking.
Prosocial Maintenance Behaviors - Examples Positivity, openness and routine talk, assurances, social networking, task sharing, supportiveness, joint activities, romance and affection, humor, and constructive conflict management
Antisocial Maintenance Behaviors Negative behaviors that are sometimes used to maintain relationships, although tend not to increase (and may even decrease) rel. satis. Tend to discourage interaction or try to change the partner in some way; often coercive, manipulative, or controlling.
Antisocial Maintenance Behaviors - Examples Avoidance, no flirting, talking about others, jealousy induction, spying, infidelity, allowing control, and destructive conflict. Include ultimatums, threats, and becoming distant.
Rabbey's Category of Online Relationships (4) 1. Virtual Relationships 2. Pinocchio Relationships 3. Cyber Emigrant Relationships 4. Community in Real-World Relationships
Rabbey's - Virtual Relationships Partners only communicate online
Rabbey's - Cyber Emigrant Relationships those in which partners first meet in person but then start communicating primarily online
Rabbey's - Pinocchio Relationships When partners first meet online but then start meeting in person (i.e. they become "real")
Rabbey's - Community in Real-World Relationships Starts and continues primarily in face-to-face contexts
Strategic Maintenance Behaviors Intentionally designed to maintain a relationship; call with intent to apologize after fight with a friend, on Mother's day send your mom a bouquet of flowers
Routine Maintenance Behaviors are less strategic and deliberate. They are used without the express purpose of maintaining the relationship, yet they still help people preserve their bonds with one another. Ex. task sharing and positivity
Three Challenges in Cross-Sex Friendships Emotional Bond, Sexual, and Public Presentation Challenges
Emotional Bond Challenge stems from men and women being socialized to see one another as potential romantic partners rather than platonic friends. Can lead to uncertainty if romantic feelings exist for each other, also can cause confusion
Sexual Challenge Involves coping with the potential sexual attraction that can be part of some cross-sex relationships.
Public Presentation Challenge Arises when other people assume there is something romantic or sexual going on in a cross-sex friendship. CSFs are sometimes careful about how they present their friendship to others and may be asked to explain the nature of their relationship to others.
4 Types of Cross-Sex Relationships Based on Romantic Intent 1. Strictly platonic 2. Mutual romance group 3. Desires-romance 4. Rejects-romance
Romantic intent the desire to move the friendship toward a romantic relationship
Type of CSR - Strictly Platonic Neither they nor their partner want the friendship to become romantic
Type of CSR - Mutual romance group Both they and their partner want the friendship to become romantic
Type of CSR - Desires-romance They wanted the friendship to become romantic, but their partner wanted it to stay platonic
Type of CSR - Rejects-romance They wanted the friendship to stay platonic, but their partner wanted it to become romantic
Idealization in LDRs occurs when people describe their relationship and their partner in glowing, overly positive terms that sometimes reflect unrealistic expectations. Keeps people committed to their relationships.
Equity Theory Focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners. Measured by comparing the ratio of contributions (costs) and benefits (rewards) for each person.
RATIO in Equity Theory Partners do not have to receive equal benefits or make equal contributions as long as the ratio between these benefits and contributions is similar.
General Equity Represents an overall assessment of balance between two people's benefits and contributions
Specific Equity Focuses on the balance between people's benefits and contributions in a specific area, such as physical attractiveness, financial resources, social status, ability to influence each other, and supportiveness
Overbenefited receives more benefits or makes fewer contributions, or both, than does the partner, so that the ratio between them is unbalanced
Underbenefited Receives fewer benefits or makes great contributions than does the partner, so that the ration between them is not balanced
Ways to Cope with Inequity 1. Restoring actual equity 2. Adjusting psychological equity 3. Leaving the relationship
Restoring Actual Equity People can attempt to restore actual equity by changing their behavior; overbenefited partner might contribute more to the relationship, whereas the underbenefited partner might do less
Adjusting Psychological Equity People sometimes reassess their costs and benefits and decide that they are actually getting a fairer deal than they first thought. Reflect on all that your partner actually does for you.
Leaving the Relationship (restoring equity) Might leave temporarily to make a statement
To be highly satisfied, a couple also needs to be in a relationship in which ____ outweigh _____. Benefits; Costs
Costs include people's contributions, such as the time and effort they put into accomplishing tasks and maintaining their relationships, as well as the negative consequences of being in a relationship, such as having conflict and losing opportunities.
The overall level of ____ associated with a relationship is more important than ____. Benefits (or rewards); equity
Some level of ____ might be inconsequential if both partners are receiving enough _____. Inequity; benefits
Correct Textbook Citation Guerrero, Andersen, and Afifi (2014); 2nd time - Guerrero et al. 2014
Created by: caitlinlandsman